Photosynthesis is one of the most important processes in all of biology, and also one of the most complex. This is possibly the most complex thing you will have to learn in basic biology aside from Cellular Respiration. However, there are some simple rules that can be kept in mind to help to understand this chemical reaction.
One of the most important things to keep in mind is the obvious facts that you already know. You know that photosynthesis uses light to power it, (the photo- part) and that is creates sugars for the plant to use. (the -synthesis). You also know that plants take in CO2 to power this reaction and release oxygen as a waste product. That right there reveals much about the reaction itself.
[Red Mangrove Leaves - Public Domain]
Red Mangrove Leaves
The first step of the reaction takes place in the outer membrane of structures called thylakoids, which are found inside the chloroplasts of plant cells. Thylakoids are organized into stacks called granum and are bathed in a solution called the stroma. When light from outside the cell strikes a molecule of Chlorophyll a within the Photosystem II embedded in the membrane, it then excited one electron in the molecule and causes it to jump up into a higher energy level. Then, the electron is transferred along the Electron Transport Chain after first being transferred to the Primary Electron Accepter from the clorophyll molecule. Electrons continue along the chain until they lost most of their energy. The energy that they lost is used to move H+ ions into the thylakoid. As this is happeneing, another light particle excites a second electron in a separate chlorophyll in they Photosystem I. Those electrons more to another electron acceptor and the lost electrons are replaced by the electrons form the first chlorophyll molecule. From there, they move along another Electron Transport Chain and are bonded along with a proton and a molecule of NADP+ to form a mulecuor of NADPH. Also, a higher concentration of protons is built up inside the tylakoid membrane that will be used later in a process called Chemiosmosis.
Ok. That admittedly was a lot to take in. However, this can be broken down into basic steps.
A photon (light particle) excites an electron in a molecule of Chlorophyll.
The electrons flow into the Primary Electron Acceptor.
From there, they proceed to move along the Electron Transport Chain.
Light is absorbed into the Photosystem II at the same time as Photosystem I. The electron from Photosystem II restores the missing electron from Photosystem I. The electron from Photosystem I then is joined along with a proton and molecule of NADP+ to from a molecule of NADPH.
IF YOU ARE NOT REGISTERED FOR THIS CLASS DO NOT POST HERE~THANK YOU~
This week is about betting aquainted with each other and learning about the amazing world of herbs. You can use you magickal names in class but please add you given names on your test as well as your craft name. I want to make sure you are getting your credits. My grading system is on percentages and points earned from class participation 1x per day you must post M-F. All test are due on Thursday night PDT witching hour (midnight). Late submissions will loose points unless previously arranged with me. There will be bonus points available and I encourage you to grab those points because having a few bad test grades can fail you but the bonus points can get you a passing grade. I know I'm strict but you wil not get this quality of an education anywhere else at the price I give it. This is a legal ministry and academic institution that provides cetificates of completion.
All test are posted in the early hours of Friday mornings in a new weeks blog post in the classroom. Please copy all test and complete questions and your answers to be submitted via email to me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
I have posted several blogs outside on the class protocol and curriculum. Please read and become familiar with these guidelines.
Please complete this questionnaire and submit by Thursday midnight PDT.
Are you a Natural Born Green Witch !
1. When you take a walk outside,do you graze while you walk?
2. Do you talk to your Pets or any other animals and do they answer you back ?
3. Do you have weeds growing around your house and people think you
should be using a " weed " eater ?
4. When you offer someone a cup of tea,do they ask you whats in it ?
5. Do you pick recyclables out of the regular garbage,rinse them,put them into
the proper bin and remind everyone in the family to be earth friendly ?
6. Does your house smell like a spice factory,herbs in the dehydrator,herbs hanging
from the windows,herbs laying about on screens ?
7. Is your kitchen overrun with to many herb jars and spice bottles ?
8. Are your fingers grass stained or fingernails dirty from digging in the earth ?
9. Do you talk to your plants,touch them and when one of them is sick,do you
tell the plant in a sweet whisper: it will be alright,you will be better soon ?
10. Do you give thanks for harvesting herbs,vegetables or any other plant from
your garden or any where out in nature ?
11. Instead of going to the pharmacy, you whip something up yourself ?
12. Do you ask the Earth Spirits for permission to plant a garden ?
13. Do you clean your home with homemade cleaners and dislike the smells of
chemical based cleaners ?
14. Do you constantly have to touch the earth in your pots or outside in nature ?
15. Do you have a dish filled with herbs in almost every room, a herb bag hanging
in the closed or a herb bag in your linen drawer ?
16. Do you plant certain herbs with a specific intent into your garden ?
17. When someone talks about having a headache or stomachache, do you tell
them which herb to use for which illness ?
18. When preparing for a spell, do you know which herbs to use for the spell,
without looking them up in a book ?
19. Can you feel the life within a plants leaves and can you hear the plant talk
to you ?
20. Can you see,feel or hear when your plants are happy or in distress ?
21. Do you apologize to your plants if you did something wrong, like didn't talk
to them, forgot to water them or if dropped them on the floor ?
How many Yes answers did you get ???
Legion of Pagans Spiritual Ministry
Institution of Magick
NEXT WEEK YOU WILL BEGIN CLASS STARTING WITH STARTING, MONITORING, AND SUBMITTING PHOTOS OF (THREE PLANTS) YOU WILL START FROM SEED. YOU CAN USE A POT, OR A CAN WITH DRAINAGE HOLES. YOU WILL NEED SOME GOOD SOIL, A SPRITZER, AND SEED OF ROSEMARY, SAGE, AND THYME.
Calcite gets its name from "chalix" the Greek word for lime. There are said to be more than 300 crystal forms of calcite and these can combine to produce a thousand or more different crystal variations. Calcite is also the primary mineral component in such cave formations as stalactites and stalagmites.
Calcite can be found in a number of colors including white or colorless, green, yellow, orange, blue, pink brown, red, black and gray. Calcite crystals are often used as healing stones and some information about this use is given below.
Healing uses: Calcite is credited with the ability to concentrate energy and release it in intensified form, thus it is believed to be an excellent stone for those involved in the healing professions. Many who work with Calcite believe that old, rigid thoughts and emotions may manifest as bone issues in the body, thus they find calcite useful for constrictions of ligaments and muscles as well as for working with arthritis and joint issues. It is also a good choice for Reiki and distance healing work, because it amplifies the energy being sent.
Mental/emotional uses: Calcite is a peaceful stone and is considered one of the most gentle healing stones. It is also often called the "stone of the mind" and believed to provide supportive energies during times of mental changes or big transitions. Green calcite has a mild vibration that facilitates calm and relaxation, balancing the emotions and is an excellent tool for bringing tranquility to the emotional body.
Metaphysical beliefs: It is believed that the purifying energy of calcite cleans out stored negative energy from a room, the body, etc. Use calcite to clear out old energy patterns and to increase personal motivation and drive. It is considered to be beneficial to keep around the home or in the garden as it creates a peaceful atmosphere. Green calcite is often called the money stone. It is said to return two-fold anything that you give. Because of this, green calcite has also been called a "money magnet" or "prosperity stone."
Additional information on color - Each color of calcite is credited with helping to support other healing properties as noted below:
White calcite is believed to open the crown chakra
Green calcite for physical imbalances
Red calcite to strengthen the life force
Orange calcite to help reduce worry
Pink calcite is said to support the heart chakra
Calcite can be carried in pocket or medicine bag, and is frequently incorporated into jewelry items.
The name epidote is from the Greek epi, meaning "over," and didonai, meaning "to give." The name was originally intended to describe the enlargement of one side of the crystal in certain specimens. Epidote ranges in color from green to brown and black and is believed to have a simple grounding and "back to the Earth" vibration.
In folklore, epidote is said to be a stone of increase. It therefore has a tendency to increase anything it touches, whether the thing it touches is energy or a material object. It is believed to be a powerful healing stone by itself or as an inclusion in quartz or other stones; it is thought to increase their healing virtues.
Medicinally, epidote is thought to stimulate the immune system and improve overall physical well being, thereby strengthening over-all health. Some feel epidote can be used as a digestive aid, especially for those who have a hard time assimilating food intake and to help heal intestinal blockages due to nervous disorders affecting the stomach. Epidote is also believed to help with regeneration and recovery following illness, exhaustion due to stress, and past trauma.
Emotionally, epidote is thought to promote patience, cleanse old, repressed and stimulate perception and personal power. It is believed to "dissolve" sadness or sorrow, self-pity, grief, and is thought to dispel critical tendencies and closed-mindedness.
Thoughts for its use around horses would include those recovering from injury or illness, including muscular and joint problems, horses with ulcers or digestive problems, hard-keepers, horses in high stress situations such as showing, trailering, etc., and those suffering from past traumas. Don't forget that epidote, as well as other healing stones, are believed share their beneficial attributes with the healer as well!
Epidote can be carried in pocket, purse, or medicine bag, or can be worn in jewelery in combination with small quartz crystals or other stones.
Before you begin this meditation, you might want to refer to my previous article on "Sword and Dagger Magic,"as it relates to this Meditation Practice.
Increase Visions During Meditation: Choose a comfortable chair and lay the sword crosswise about three feet in front of it. Stand beyond the sword, dagger in hand.
Beginning on the right side, and going up and to the left "cut" a doorway in the the air, then say: "Across the Bifrost bridge I go to commune with the Gods of Asgard.I will sit beside the Well of Urd for instruction by the Norns.Freely I go. Freely I return. Walk through the door to your chair and begin your meditation. When your meditation is finished, step back across the sword and seal the doorway with the dagger. This is done by drawing the doorway from left to right.
May, Heimdall, guardian of the Bifrost bridge, be with you,
Norse Witch Weather Signs
It Will Be a Bad Winter if:
Forecasting Winter by Animals:
-Squirrels begin gathering nuts early (Middle or late Sept.)
-Beaver lodges have more logs
(or if the north side of the beaver dam is more covered with sticks than the south.
-Fur or hair on animals such as horses, dogs, sheep and cows is thicker than usual.
-Squirrels build nests low in trees.
-Birds eat all the berries early
Forecasting Winter by Insects:
It will be a bad winter if:
-There are a lot of spiders in the fall.
-Hornets and yellow jackets build nests heavier and closer to the ground than usual.
-The woolly worm tells of a bad winter if, there are a lot of them crawling about.
-he has a heavy coat.
-the black band on his back is wide ( the more black than brown he is, and or the wider the black stripe the worse the winter.)
migrate early, winter will be early.
Forecasting Winter by Plants:
It will be a bad winter if:
-Apples and grapes mature early.
-Onions grow more layers
-Trees are laden with green leaves late into the Fall.
-Bark on the trees is thicker.
Forecasting Winter by Weather:
-Two frosts and lots of rain mean cold weather is near.
-A late frost means a bad winter.
-If the first snow stays on the ground for three days, another snow will come on top of it.
-If it frost before November 23rd, it will be a bad winter.
-Lots of low rolling thunder in the late fall means a bad winter.
Forecasting Winter by the Moon:
-The number of days old the Moon is at the first snow tells how many snows there will be that winter.
It will rain:
-If cows are laying down in pasture.
-If there is a ring around the Moon.(Count the stars in the ring and it will rain within that many days)
-If the Sun sets with clouds.
-If smoke goes to the ground.
-If birds fly low.
The weather will be fair if:
-You hear a screech owl.
-crickets holler. The temperature will rise.
circular, tubular, or spiral-shaped pasta
circular or star-shaped cereals
It is probably not the best idea to feed your children all these foods in one sitting. But adding some or all of them to their regular diet can increase their creative powers.
All circular or star-shaped cereals promote creativity and circular, tubular, or spiral-shaped pastas are more mentally stimulating than old-fashioned straight, string spaghetti.
Carrot juice gives physical and mental energy as well as increasing drive and motivation.
Bananas, almonds and dates are ruled by the element of air, which influences our thoughts and ideas.
Sunday 6th April 2014
Moon 6° Cancer trines Neptune 6° Pisces
Moon 12° Cancer conjunct Jupiter 12° Cancer
Moon 12° Cancer squares Uranus 12° Aries
Moon 13° Cancer opposes Pluto 13° Capricorn
Current Moon Phase for April 6th – Waxing Crescent
(waxing/46% of illumination)
During this Moon phase, there is a slight slowing down of enthusiasm due to an emerging desire to produce tangible results from the energy being expended. The issue of values enters into the equation and an urge to tie together the data available so that you can utilize current opportunities. There is still plenty of forward motion, and this is a great time to continue initiating and progressing forward. This Moon phase favors gaining more information and the input of others to further your plans.
Sunday 6th April => Tuesday 15th April 2014
A Strong, Sharp and Determined Journey of Fate
What do you instinctively do when you get frustrated and stressed-out ? Depending on your star sign - if you're a water sign - you probably take a shower, have a bath, go to a sauna - if you're an earth sign - you probably go for a walk - if you're an air sign - you probably call your friends, listen to music and sing/hum to yourself - and if you're a fire sign - you either explode and get angry OR you have "sex" - whatever YOU do - is the instinct of what your body needs in order to balance the energies.
At the moment - the Sun in Aries - is affecting people's HEADS - and therefore - the body is wanting balance - and needs you to use you FEET and LEGS. So when you feel stressed - and worried - and have a headache - GO FOR A WALK. Get outside in the fresh air - and walk your feet. In so doing - you will balance the energies away from your HEAD. This is especially true for all Earth signs and anyone with planets in Earth Signs - your BODY NEEDS a WALK - and I'd hazard a guess - that when you're stressed you actually don't go for a walk - you stay indoors - in one place and don't move your body - that's the worst thing for your body - as you're intensifying thefrustration of squares and oppositions.
If you look at the astrological chart below - anyone who stays STILL in ONE place is making themselves a target for the astrological squares and oppositions - so AVOID the pain - and MOVE your physical body. Remember what I said on "Sun in Aries" - life is trying to create a NEW "You" and now that we're on the flowering and budding stage of the New "You" of part II Sun in Aries it's now essential and vital you MOVE your physical body - and you DO something.
If you do nothing - if you go nowhere and if you refuse to allow growth for the NEW "You" - then you will be getting very frustrated. You might ask - what good will it do - but try it and see for yourself - moving your body and going for a walk - will actually be VERY good for you.
Moon in Cancer
"Yes" or "No" defines Everything and Everyone in your life
Moon in Cancer - will show you a strength from your emotions - as it will be doing something VERY IMPORTANT for you
It's going to be a very BUSY DAY - even though it's Sunday - due to Moon & Jupiter in Cancer will ensure you WANT the "future" - you will WANT to see the "future" - and will WANT to create your "future" and in so doing - you'll "think" with clarity, determination and strength what you honestly WANT in your "future" - and today is the day you will WANT the future NOW.
This desire and sense of urgency will then motivate and drive everyone to get-out-of-bed and go-get the "future". The good thing is that the STRENGTH of the day - will ensure you get EVERYTHING right - and everything that is right will feel right and anything that's wrong - you'll know and won't waste the time on.
Moon 6° Cancer trines Neptune 6° Pisces creates a precise "tuning-in" to knowledge with an accurate sensitivity - from WITHIN you - it creates stability and calmness in your mind - which will immediately manifests in your real life - you'll feel - LIFE is WONDERFUL.
This leads to Moon-Jupiter conjunction at 12° Cancer - which about to transform the "old" you into "new" you and in the same way - trees, flowers and plants - need a "sign" from nature to tell them to wake-up - you too will be receiving your positive wake-up call - letting you know - nothing to worry or fear - now is the time when everything's going to be alright. After this conjunction there will be no possibility to "hold" onto the past.
Moon 12° Cancer conjunct Jupiter 12° Cancer creates 100% clarity - a clarity, strength, confidence that you've not felt in the past 6 months - will come "back" to you - stronger than ever before - because you've missed it. It will awaken you from WITHIN - fill your aura with clarity - and as you WAKE-UP you'll look around you - and make decisions to change things in your life.
Free Horoscopes by Astrodienst
Moon 12° Cancer squares Uranus 12° Aries creates a SHOCK - as something "old" from the "past" vanishes - disappears - drops-dead - becomes irrelevant in your life - and with a heartless emotion - you feel NOTHING towards "it" - and "throw" it out of your life. You know it'll be right - because like having a bag of smelly garbage in your kitchen - you know it has to go - and what a HUGE relief when it goes. Now you can rearrange your "Future"
Moon 13° Cancer opposes Pluto 13° Capricorn everyone has feelings that are inexplicable - but when you THINK - WHY do you have feelings towards some things and others nothing - you will realize that it's something WITHIN you that's making you a magnet for a cycle of specific life-situations. When you CHANGE yourself WITHIN you - then you can change what you attract into your life. Instinctively - this opposition will make you aware of what you need to change.
(Mar 21 – Apr 19)
Everything seems to be happening so fast now that you don’t even have time to think about what you’re going to do; you simply do it. You barely complete a conversation or finish a project before something new comes at you from another direction. Fortunately, you are a master at thinking on your feet and reacting quickly. No particular planning is necessary today; you can always make adjustments later on. Give yourself permission to embrace the spontaneity of the moment.
(Apr 20 – May 20)
You’re resistant to participating in a group event now because you don’t want to relinquish your sense of control over your day. Although you might be able to muster up enough energy to slip by unnoticed, others may perceive you as lazy because they don’t feel your enthusiasm. However, limiting most of your activity to the non-physical world of emotional fantasy isn’t a waste of time since today’s dreams can turn into tomorrow’s reality.
(May 21 – Jun 20)
You may be quite excited about what’s ahead but something is simultaneously anchoring you to the past. Ironically, the future might even feel more real than the present moment. Unfortunately, it’s probably harder than you think to execute your plans today. Instead of trying to manage all the variables, take a radical approach and just let go of control for a while. Floating on the waves without resistance is more productive now than struggling to maintain your current direction.
(Jun 21 – Jul 22)
You could be feeling stressed today, especially if your friends expect you to be a team player and you want to relax. Even if you spend much of the day at home, it’s challenging to take your mind completely off unsettling dynamics at work or in your community. Thankfully, you don’t have to resolve the tension immediately. Instead, allow your feelings to ebb and flow with your own emotional tides, putting off significant decisions until the pressure subsides.
(Jul 23 – Aug 22)
Expressing your feelings is not as simple as it sounds today. Even if you try to share what’s on your mind, language falls short of communicating your experience. Although anger from an old emotional wound may linger, it’s hard to stay in a negative place for very long now because of all the possibilities you see waiting on the horizon. Instead of talking about your dilemma, improve your life one positive step at a time. Actions speak louder than words.
(Aug 23 – Sep 22)
Typically, your top priority is putting all your facts in order rather than exploring your feelings about a complex situation. However, you can push through old emotional limitations and into new territory today because you want the most intense experience you can find. Your impulsive behavior might surprise your friends because you usually adopt a more cautious approach. Acknowledge your desires even if you’re afraid of being judged. Don’t let this special opportunity to create positive change slip through your fingers.
(Sep 23 – Oct 22)
Improving relationship dynamics takes some extra effort now because it’s difficult to rein in your thoughts and feelings. Nevertheless, it’s a smart strategy to try to open the lines of communication anyhow. Be careful; if you are a procrastinator, you may have to contend with someone who has a very different idea of what you should be doing today. Nevertheless, don’t worry too much about other people’s expectations. Do what you can to keep the energy flowing, but take care of yourself, too, even if it means doing nothing at all.
(Oct 23 – Nov 21)
You are willing to freely express your feelings today because you’re not so worried about receiving a harsh reaction from anyone else. You might even get an adrenaline rush from stepping over the edge of acceptability, if only for the shock value. However, revealing your quirkiness is safer now because you are so focused on whatever work needs to be done. It’s easier to get away with being weird when you are also highly efficient.
(Nov 22 – Dec 21)
You may appear overly enthusiastic today because you throw yourself wholeheartedly into nearly everything you do. Others have a hard time keeping up with you as you race around fulfilling your current obligations. Ironically, you still might feel as if you’re running out of time even though you’re on a creative roll now. Remember that other people need to adhere to schedules, even if you’re less attached to their concept of linear time. A little sensitivity goes a long way toward establishing harmony.
(Dec 22 – Jan 19)
Your day could offer the respite you need, though it still may be challenging for you to sit back and fully enjoy it. A hectic day on the home front magnifies your desire for some peace and quiet, but you might be bored by the time you finally get it. Remember, there’s no reason to create additional drama where none previously existed. Your attitude can make all the difference in the world; finding your center enables you to grab moments of calm even in the midst of chaos
(Jan 20 – Feb 18)
You might experience an intellectual breakthrough today. You could learn something new from a close friend that helps you understand how much others value your contributions now. But rather than resting on your laurels and basking in the warmth of the compliments, you’re already eager for the next project. It’s admirable to pursue your ambitions so passionately, but first take time to celebrate your previous accomplishments.
(Feb 19 – Mar 20)
The real world may not seem very important now as you entertain your fantasies. Fortunately, your daydreaming might turn into quite a spiritual journey if you are ready to minimize your attachment to material needs. Nevertheless, no matter how this kind of inter-dimensional thinking plays itself out, financial concerns could bring you crashing back down to earth today. Attend to your commitments with the same urgency that you give your dreams so you can return to your creative pursuits as soon as possible.
Today's Spirit Animal Oracle:
That Which is Behind You
Green Woman has magically floated into your life to remind you of the energy of fertility--fertility for a project, a garden, a love affair or conception. If there is fertile ground, it WILL bear fruit. Green Woman encourages you to practice your own brand of magic, and to appreciate the talents you have that will, in the near future, give birth to a magical creation.
Your Current Place
Taking yourself too seriously? If you are, Coyote will throw a banana peel in your tracks just to see you take a silly spill. Coyote medicine is Trickster medicine—the practical joker, the chaos maker. If Coyote appeared in your reading today, be ready for a curveball thrown in your direction. Remember, though, Coyote uses the bizarre to help us learn lessons we just can't seem to get any other way.
That Which is before You
Ant is dutiful, patient, industrious and focused. If you ever put an obstacle in the middle of an ant trail, you’ll notice that ant will go over it, around it, or even under it—but ant will NOT let the obstacle drive him backwards. Above all, ant is a team player, and knows that if each member of the team does his assigned task, the team will succeed. Do you have goals that are best met by team effort? If so, get the other players off the bench and let them into your game.
Today's Tarot: The Star
What has traditionally been known as the Star card is about reconnecting one’s Soul with the Divine — the transcending of personality, family, community and reputation. It has to do ultimately with the freedom to be one’s Self. The Soul is responding to celestial influences — forces that can provide the personality with a stronger sense of purpose. The Star card helps us to remember our exalted origins and our attraction to a Higher Union.
This card could also be called the “Celestial Mandate” — that which refers us back to our reason for being, our mission in this lifetime. The Star reminds us that, in a sense, we are agents of Divine Will in our day-to-day lives. If we let go of the idea that we are supposed to be in control, we can more easily notice and appreciate the synchronicities that are nudging us along. In this way, we become more conscious of the invisible Helping Hand, and we better understand our place within — and value to — the larger Cosmos.
Your Rune For Today
Naudhiz may foretell needs unmet and friction in relationships. You may be in a time where you should be very careful in whatever endeavor you take on. Also it may be that you are about to learn some of life’s hard lessons and come out the other side of this period a stronger being.
Today's Faery Oracle:
The Tolerance Fairy
Stay calm in all situations as it is far better for your own well being.
Your Fairy Affirmation for today:
"I will stay calm and be proud of myself for doing so."
Witchcraft is sorcery, the magic handling of supernatural forces through spells, magic, divination, and the creation or the call of the spirits. Scientific authorities often refer to sorcery or witchcraft as the use of malevolent powers through the employment of psychic means without need for ritual or charm, but in the contemporary Western world, witches typically work or cast magic spells. Witchcraft or sorcery usually involves the use of powers such as form-shifting, clairvoyance, invisibility, flight, and astral projection.
Magic and witchcraft have existed and endured since the dawn of time. Through countless periods of trials and tribulations, the champions of the craft have carried the traditions forward. There have been great sufferings and great triumphs along the way and magic and witchcraft are presently experiencing a time of resurgence, awakening, and enlightenment.
Follow the links below for more information:
The Atrocities Timeline
The Esoterica Timeline
Wicca versus Traditional Witchcraft
The Power of Witchcraft
Holidays and Sabbats
The Witches Lair
The Roots of Witchcraft
Witchcraft, sorcery, magic, that which can only start to find its roots when we turn over until Mesopotamia. With their deity for all the types of disasters, such as Utug - the inhabitant of the desert waiting you to remove if you wander with far, and Telal - the demon of Bull, Alal - the destroyer, Namtar - plague, Idpa - fever, and Maskim - the snare setter; the days of the superstition were quite in hand. It was believed that all the Pharaohs, the kings, etc impregnated a certain power of the gods, and even the lightest movement whom they have fact would cause production of an action. It was believed that an image, or the statue also carried the spirit of the person. It is one of the reasons for which they were carried from one place to another, and also explains why you see so many images and statues of these people with their right hands at their sides. In the bible, we find the reference "to the tower of Babel" or Ziggurat in Genesis 11. "Maintaining the world whole had a language and a common speech. While the men moved towards the east, they found a plain in Shinar (Babylonia) and arranged there. They said between them, "came, make bricks and to make them cook with the furnace completely." They employed brick instead of the stone, and the tar instead of the mortar. Then they said, "came, us let build us a city, with a tower which reaches with the skies, so that we can make a name for ourselves and not be dispersed above the face of the whole ground." But the lord is descended to see the city and the tower which the men built. The lord said, "if as people speaking the same language that they started to do this, then nothing they project to make will not be impossible for them. Come to leave us descend and confuse their language thus they will not include themselves/understand." "It continues to indicate that the tower was never finished. In other references, us note that it "turn" of makes has be finished, and that it was a tower which represented "puts in scene" between the ground and sky (not a tower extending to the sky in the literal direction.) of this reference, it was a tower built in the stages. A hierarchy on which the sky and the hell were based. It was really a miniature world representing the mountain of the ground.
The Search for Magical Knowledge
Each stage was devoted to a planet, with its angles symbolizing the four corners of the world. They moved in Akkad, Saburtu, Elam, and the Western grounds. The seven stages of the tower were painted in various colors which corresponded to planets. "Saturn, was black. The second was white, the Jupiter color. The third, brick-red, the color of mercury, followed blue, Come; to yellow, Mars, gray or money for the moon. These colors predicted good or bad, like their planets. For the first time, the numbers expressed the order of the world. A legend depicts Pythagoras of Samos traveling to Babylon where one teaches to him the mystery of the numbers, their magic importance and the power. The seven stages often appear in magic philosophy. The seven stages are: stones, fire, factories, animals, man, the skies starry, and angels. Starting with the study of the stones, the man of wisdom will reach higher and higher degrees of knowledge, until it can in measurement apprehend sublimation, and the eternal. While assembling these stages, a man would reach the knowledge of God, of which the name is with the eighth degree, the threshold of the marvelous housing of God. The place was also a "mystical" symbol in a few these periods, and however divided into seven, was still respected. This correlated the old tradition of a quadruple world being reconciled with the seven skies of the posterior periods. It is thought that was the beginning with the numerology here, but so that this develops with the point where they had taken into account the place like quadruple world, it should have developed before this.
The Celts: "Magic" Begins
The roots of the magic come from Celts. Descendants of Indo-Europeans, Celts were brilliant and dynamic people - artists endowed, musicians, storytellers, metal-worker, expert farmers and warlike wild. Their adversaries, the Novels have much fears them, which thereafter adopted a certain number of their habits and traditions. Celts were deeply spiritual people, which adored a god and the goddess. Their religion was pantheistic, meaning they adored many aspects of "creative source of the life" and honored the presence "of the divine creator" in all with nature. As much of tribes the world more, they believed in the reincarnation. After death, they went in Summerland for the rest and the renewal very while waiting for the rebirth. The months of the Celtic year were baptized name of the trees. The new Celtic year started at Samhain, which means that the "summers finish," and were the final harvest of the year. It was also their "festival of deaths," where they honored their ancestors and the late ones liked those. Many habits of Halloween of contemporary come from Samhain. Afterwards on the wheel of the Celtic year was the winter solstice, celebrating the annual rebirth of the sun. Our habits of Christmas are similar to this ancient celebration today. Around the beginning of February Imbolg came, one moment when the domesticated animals started to give birth. The equinox and Beltaine of spring, sometimes called the "day of May," were festivals of fertility. The summer solstice, known under the name of Lughnassa, celebrated the glory of the sun and the powers of nature. Lughnassa, the autumnal equinox, and Samhain, were considered as Celtic festivals of harvest. The "druids" were the priests of the Celtic religion. They remained in the power and three centuries after the defeat of Celts to the hands of the Novels. The druids were priests, professors, judges, astrologers, healers and bards. They became essential to the political chiefs, giving them the considerable power and the influence. They were conciliators, and could pass from a making tribe the war to the other unscathed ones. That took twenty years of intense study to go well to a druid. Translated, the druid of word wants to say "to know the tree of oak." Of the trees, the oak in particular, were considered crowned by Celts. The Mistletoe, which develops like parasite on trees of oak, was a powerful grass used in their ceremonies and for curative. The Mistletoe was ritually harvested with the summer solstice while cutting it with a gold sickle and by catching it with a white fabric all while never dropping it to the ground. The belief and the religious practices of Celts developed in what later became notorious like paganism, not to be confused with Neo-Paganism of limit, which is beyond the range of this writing. The pagan one of word is derived from the Latin word Paganus, meaning the "inhabitant of country." This consequence was formed with the love of Celts for the ground and their possession of the things such as the tree and the crowned Mistletoe of oak. The belief and the ritual — one of Pagan roots mixed with those of other Indo-European descended groups — and the surplus several centuries generated such practices that inventing magic beverages and ointments, moulding orthography, and to carry out work of magic. These practices, with much of the belief nature-based held by Celts and other groups, collectively became known under the name of sorcery. The witch of limit, which wants to say "to twist or yield," has her origin in the antique, Wicca of word of Anglo-Saxon it, which is derived wicce from word it, which means "wise." The witch is also related to the German word, "weihen," which mean "to devote or bless. " Some indicate that the origins of the witch go up to thousands of years, at the days when the goddess was adored and humanity had the great veneration for the powers of nature and women as creators of the new life. In philosophy of "new age", this is connected to the concept of "Gaia," or "Ground," which look at the planet ground as prima
Witches are Labeled
Before the 14th century, sorcery came to mean that collection of belief and practices including/understanding curative spell through, to mix ointments or medicines, to wet in the supernatural one, to guess or envisage the future, and to begin in clairvoyance. The groups meeting on the other belief and the ritual one often stigmatized with sorcery like "demon-adoring." After North America was discovered and European started to emigrate with the new ground, sorcery inherited the practice by some the first, colonial colonists. Since it had been previously stigmatized like "demon-adoring," one prohibited sorcery in all the North-American colonies. In spite of this decree by the powers of the day, some colonists secretly practiced sorcery knowing that they would be hung or burned if caught. It was said to him that certain ritual carried out by the helped early-American witches protect their payments from the attacks by the indigenous Americans. The magic can carry out much results, some goods and a certain evil, according to the type of magic and the intentions of expert. The types well-known of magic are indicated by colors. "The black magic" is carried out with the intention to harm others which are, as means of establishing the power of the expert or like itself drank. The fundamental ideology on which the black magic is based declares that the expert and his continuation of knowledge and/or of physical wellbeing, are more important than other concern, theological or moral. "The green magic" makes take part the expert adapting or itself to nature and the world around him. "The white magic" is where the expert adapts or itself with the needs for the human society and tries to satisfy these needs. It is a form of magic "of personal appreciation", and does not require to harm other beings. "The gray magic" is magic that is neither the green, neither black, nor white, and who replaces usually the absolute stand of these kingdoms with a moral code which is particular to the expert. It is a type of magic its, and can be employed for many various goals. "The folk magic" is an eclectic collection of herbalism, faith curative, curses and magic spells, magic of candle, and other operations which thrived in rural sectors during centuries. There is also the limit, the "magician of hedge," which refers to an individual who tries to practice the magic with little or not formal formation.
Johannes Trithemius: The art of drawing spirits into crystals
By Donna Morgan on Saturday, April 5, 2014 at 5:11pm
Of the making of the Chrystal and the Form of Preparation for a Vision.
Procure of a lapidary good clear pellucid crystal, of the bigness of a small orange, i.e. about one inch and a half in diameter; let it be globular or round each way alike; then, when you have got this crystal, fair and clear, without any clouds or specks, get a small plate of pure gold to encompass the crystal round one half; let this be fitted on an ivory or ebony pedestal, as you may see more fully described in the drawing, [figure 1]. Let there be engraved a circle (A) round the crystal with these characters around inside the circle next the crystal ; afterwards the name "Tetragrammaton". On the other side of the plate let there be engraven "Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael;" which are the four principal angels ruling over the Sun, Moon, Venus and Mercury; but on the table on which the crystal stands the following names, characters, &c. must be drawn in order.
First, The names of the seven planets and angels ruling them, with their seals or characters. The names of the four kings of the four corners of the earth. Let them be all written within a double circle, with a triangle on a table; on which place the crystal on its pedestal: this being done, thy table is complete (as in the Fig. D,) and fit for the calling of the spirits; after which thou shalt proceed to experiment, thus:
There is considerable variation in identification of the four kings of the cardinal directions. Here are a few: Agrippa, OP2.7 has (E, W, N, S): "Oriens.Paymon.Egyn.Amaymon", however in OP3.24 he says, "Urieus, King of the East; Amaymon, King of the South; Paymon, King of the West; Egin, King of the North, which the Hebrew Doctors perhaps call more rightly thus, Samuel, Azazel, Azael, Mahazuel," (See Cichus In Sphaeram Mundi, f. 21 apud quem: Zoroa. Fragm. O104; cf. Salom. ff. 28v-29r; sed addict. K: Reuchl. Arte 3, sig. O7r) MC has: "Bael, Moymon, Poymon, Egyn" or "Asmodel in the East, Amaymon in the South, Paymon in the West, and Aegym in the North"; "Oriens, Paymon, Egyn, and Amaymon"; or "Amodeo [sic] (king of the East), Paymon (king of the West), Egion (king of the North), and Maimon."
In what time thou wouldest deal with the spirits by the table and crystal, thou must observe the planetary hour; and whatever planet rules in that hour, the angel governing the planet thou shalt call in the manner following; but first, say this short prayer:
"Oh, God! who art the author of all good things, strengthen, I beseech thee, thy poor servant, that he may stand fast, without fear, through this dealing and work; enlighten, I beseech thee, oh Lord! the dark understanding of thy creature, so that his spiritual eye may be opened to see and know thy angelic spirits descending here in this crystal: (then lay thy hand on the crystal saying,) and thou, oh inanimate creature of God, be sanctified and consecrated, and blessed to this purpose, that no evil phantasy may appear in thee; or, if they do gain ingress into this creature, they may be constrained to speak intelligibly, and truly, and without the least ambiguity, for Christ's sake. Amen. And forasmuch as thy servant here standing before thee, oh, Lord! desires neither evil treasures, nor injury to his neighbour, nor hurt to any living creature, grant him the power of descrying those celestial spirits or intelligences, that may appear in this crystal, and whatever good gifts (whether the power of healing infirmities, or of imbibing wisdom, or discovering any evil likely to afflict any person or family, or any other good gift thou mayest be pleased to bestow on me, enable me, by thy wisdom and mercy, to use whatever I may receive to the honour of thy holy name. Grant this for thy son Christ's sake. Amen."
Then taking your ring and pentacle, put the ring on the little finger of your right hand; hang the pentacle round thy neck ; (Note, the pentacle may be either wrote on clean virgin parchment, or engraven on a square plate of silver and suspended from thy neck to the breast), then take your black ebony wand, with the gilt characters on it and trace the circle, (Fig. 7. C D E F,) saying,
"In the name of the blessed Trinity, I consecrate this piece of ground for our defence; so that no evil spirit may have power to break these bounds prescribed here, through Jesus Christ our Lord." Amen.
Then place the vessel for the perfumes between thy circle and the holy table on which the crystal stands, and, having fire therein, cast in thy perfumes, saying,
"I conjure thee, oh thou creature of fire! by him who created all things both in heaven and earth, and in the sea, and in every other place whatever, that forthwith thou cast away every phantasm from thee, that no hurt whatsoever shall be done in any thing. Bless, oh Lord, this creature of fire, and sanctify it that it may be blessed, and that they may fill up the power and virtue of their odours; so neither the enemy, nor any false imagination, may enter into them; through our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen."
Now, this being done in the order prescribed, take out thy little book, which must be made about seven inches long, of pure white virgin vellum or paper, likewise pen and ink must be ready to write down the name, character, and office, likewise the seal or image of whatever spirit may appear (for this I must tell you that it does not happen that the same spirit you call will always appear, for you must try the spirit to know whether he be a pure or impure being, and this thou shalt easily know by a firm and undoubted faith in God.)
Now the most pure and simple way of calling the spirits or spirit is by a short oration to the spirit himself, which is more effectual and easy to perform than composing a table of letters; for all celestial operations, the more pure and unmixed they are, the more they are agreable to the celestial spirits: therefore, after the circle is drawn, the book, perfumes, rod, &c. in readiness, proceed as follows:
(After noticing the exact hour of the day, and what angel rules that hour, thou shalt say,)
"In the name of the blessed and holy Trinity, I do desire thee, thou strong mighty angel, Michael, [Or any other angel or spirit] that if it be the divine will of him who is called Tetragrammaton &c. the Holy God, the Father, that thou take upon thee some shape as best becometh thy celestial nature, and appear to us visibly here in this crystal, and answer our demands in as far as we shall not transgress the bounds of the divine mercy and goodness, by requesting unlawful knowledge; but that thou wilt graciously shew us what things are most profitable for us to know and do, to the glory and honour of his divine Majesty, who liveth and reigneth, world without end. Amen.
"Lord, thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven; -- make clean our hearts within us, and take not thy Holy Spirit from us.
"O Lord, by thy name, we have called him, suffer him to administer unto us. And that all things may work together for thy honour and glory, to whom with thee, the Son, and blessed Spirit, be ascribed all might, majesty and dominion. Amen"
Note, In these dealings, two should always be present; for often a spirit is manifest to one in the crystal when the other cannot perceive him; therefore if any spirit appear, as there most likely will, to one or both, say,
"Oh, Lord! we return thee our hearty and sincere thanks for the hearing of our prayer, and we thank thee for having permitted thy spirit to appear unto us which we, by thy mercy, will interrogate to our further instruction, through Christ. Amen."
Interrog. 1. In the name of the holy and undefiled Spirit, the Father, the begotten Son, and Holy Ghost, proceeding from both, what is thy true name?
If the spirit answers, Michael, then proceed.
Quest. 2. What is thy office? 3. What is thy true sign or character? 4. When are the times most agreeable to thy nature to hold conference with us?
Wilt thou swear by the blood and righteousness of our Lord Jesus Christ, that thou art truly Michael?
(Here let him swear, then write down his seal or character in thy book, and against it, his office and times to be called, through God's name; also write down any thing he may teach thee, or any responses he may make to thy questions or interrogations, concerning life or death, arts or sciences, or any other thing;) and then shalt thou say,
"Thou great and mighty spirit, inasmuch as thou camest in peace and in the name of the ever blessed and righteous Trinity, so in this name thou mayest depart, and return to us when we call thee in his name to whom every knee doth bow down. Fare thee well, Michael; peace be between us, through our blessed Lord Jesus Christ. Amen."
Then will the spirit depart; then say,
"To God the Father, eternal Spirit, fountain of Light, the Son, and Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory, world without end. Amen."
Fig. 1. The form of the crystal for invocating spirits, with the plate of pure gold in which the crystal must be fastened, with the divine characters around. [Names read (top) Michael, (right) Gabriel, (bottom) Raphael, (left) Uriel).]
Fig 2. A magical circle (C D E F), of a simple construction, for the operator to stand or sit in when he calleth the spirits. [Names read "Tetragrammaton," "Elohim," and "ADONAI." Also includes the common symbol for the Sun . The sigil corresponds with that of the archangel Michael in Heptameron. (In The Magical Calendar it is associated with Raphael and Venus.)]
Fig. 3. The crystal (A), two silver or other candlesticks (G G,) with the wax tapers burning, and tripod or vessel for the odoriferous suffumigation.
Fig 4. A wand of black ebony with golden characters. The characters are explained. [The magic wand to be used in invocations by the crystal. Write or engrave on the other side: "Ego Alpha et Omega."]
[The lamin is also referred to in the text as "the pentacle." It has the name of the archangel Michael in Hebrew, plus the sigil. The names around the outside read "El, Elohim, Elohe, Zebaoth, Elion, Escherchie, Adonai, Jah, Jehovah, Tetragrammaton, Saday, Jod, Ehevi."]
I shall here set down the Table of the names of Spirits and Planets governing the Hours; so thou shalt easily know by inspection, what Spirit and Planet governs every Hour of the Day and Night in the Week.
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Michael 1 Sachael 2 Anael 2 Samiel 3 Raphael 3 Michael 4 Gabriel 4 Anael 5 Cassiel 5 Raphael 6 Sachiel 6 Gabriel 7 Samael 7 Cassiel 8 Michael 8 Sachiel 9 Anael 9 Samael 10 Raphael 10 Michael 11 Gabriel 11 Anael 12 Cassiel 12 Raphael
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Gabriel 1 Anael 2 Cassiel 2 Raphael 3 Sachiel 3 Gabriel 4 Samael 4 Cassiel 5 Michael 5 Sachiel 6 Anael 6 Samael 7 Raphael 7 Michael 8 Gabriel 8 Anael 9 Cassiel 9 Raphael 10 Sachiel 10 Gabriel 11 Samael 11 Cassiel 12 Michael 12 Sachiel
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Samael 1 Cassiel 2 Michael 2 Sachiel 3 Anael 3 Samael 4 Raphael 4 Michael 5 Gabriel 5 Anael 6 Cassiel 6 Raphael 7 Sachiel 7 Gabriel 8 Samael 8 Cassiel 9 Michael 9 Sachiel 10 Anael 10 Samael 11 Raphael 11 Michael 12 Gabriel 12 Anael
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Raphael 1 Michael 2 Gabriel 2 Anael 3 Cassiel 3 Raphael 4 Sachael 4 Gabriel 5 Samael 5 Cassiel 6 Michael 6 Sachiel 7 Anael 7 Samael 8 Raphael 8 Michael 9 Gabriel 9 Anael 10 Cassiel 10 Raphael 11 Sachiel 11 Gabriel 12 Samael 12 Cassiel
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Sachiel 1 Gabriel 2 Samael 2 Cassiel 3 Michael 3 Sachiel 4 Anael 4 Samael 5 Raphael 5 Michael 6 Gabriel 6 Anael 7 Cassiel 7 Raphael 8 Sachiel 8 Gabriel 9 Samael 9 Cassiel 10 Michael 10 Sachiel 11 Anael 11 Samael 12 Raphael 12 Michael
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Anael 1 Samael 2 Raphael 2 Michael 3 Gabriel 3 Anael 4 Cassiel 4 Raphael 5 Sachiel 5 Gabriel 6 Samael 6 Cassiel 7 Michael 7 Sachiel 8 Anael 8 Samael 9 Raphael 9 Michael 10 Gabriel 10 Anael 11 Cassiel 11 Raphael 12 Sachiel 12 Gabriel
HoursDay.Angels and Planets rulingHoursNight.Angels and Planets ruling1 Cassiel 1 Raphael 2 Sachiel 2 Gabriel 3 Samael 3 Cassiel 4 Michael 4 Sachiel 5 Anael 5 Samael 6 Raphael 6 Michael 7 Gabriel 7 Anael 8 Cassiel 8 Raphael 9 Sachiel 9 Gabriel 10 Samael 10 Cassiel 11 Michael 11 Sachiel 12 Anael 12 Samael
Note, The day is divided into twelve equal parts, called Planetary Hours, reckoning from sunrise to sunset, and, again, from the setting to the rising; and to find the planetary hour, you need but to divide the natural hours by twelve, and the quotient gives the length of the planetary hours and odd minutes, which shews you how long a spirit bears rule in that day; as Michael governs the first and the eighth hour on Sunday, as does the . After you have the length of the first hour, you have only to look in the Table, as if it be the fourth hour, on Sunday, you see in the Table that the and Gabriel rules; and so for the rest it being so plain and easy you cannot err.