~*~ Elder Airwolf LoP Ministry Founder/Owner~*~

Administrator | Last logged in at

Merry Meet Legionnaires~
I am sixth generation Native Blackfoot and Scottish Celt. My Grandmother was one of my mentors her being a shaman, and my other mentor was my Druid Celtic Aunt. I was raised pagan and my education started at the age
of seven and formally after my first moon lodge ritual at 12. I am also trained as a voodoo priestess.
I am a retired MSW, Psychotherapist/Hypnotherapist, and a Dr of Ministries. I provide individual and family counseling.

Lughnasadh Lore, Ritual & Recipe


In many cultures, there are different legends and lore surrounding Lammas (Lughnasadh). Here are a few of the stories about this magical harvest celebration from around the world.

In Israel, the festival of Shavout commemorates the beginning of the harvest, as well as honoring the date that Moses received the Torah on Mt. Sinai. The final sheaf of wheat is brought to the rabbi for a blessing, synagogues and homes are decorated with flower, and a great feast is prepared for all to enjoy.
The festival of Onam is celebrated in India, and people dress up in their finest clothes and give food to the poor. Onam is celebrated in honor of King Mahabali, who was a ruler of Kerala. In one story, the god Vishnu approached Mahabali dressed as a beggar, and asked for land, which Mahabali gave him. Mahabli ended up buried under the earth by Vishnu, but was allowed to return once a year, symbolizing the planting of the seed and the subsequent harvest.
Thor's wife, Sif, had beautiful golden hair, until Loki the prankster cut it off. Thor was so upset he wanted to kill Loki, but some dwarves spun new hair for Sif, which grew magically as soon as it touched her head. The hair of Sif is associated with the harvest, and the golden grain that grows every year.
In the Shetland Islands, farmers believed that grain harvesting should only take place during a waning moon. They also believed this about the fall potato crop, and the cutting of peat.
At Lughnasadh, calves are weaned, and the first fruits are ripe, such as apples and grapes. In some Irish counties, it was believed farmers had to wait until Lughnasadh to start picking these fruits, or bad luck would befall the community.
In some countries, Lammas is a time for warrior games and mock battles. This may hearken back to the days when a harvest festival was held, and people would come from miles around to get together. What better way for young men to show off their strength and impress the girls than by whacking away at all the competition? Games and contests are also held in honor of Lugh, the mighty Celtic craftsman god, in which artisans offer up their finest work.
It's become a custom to give people the gift of a pair of gloves at Lammastide. In part, it's because winter is just around the corner, but it's also related to an old tradition in which landowners gave their tenants a pair of gloves after the harvest. The glove is a symbol of authority and benevolence.
***Setting Up Your Lammas (Lughnasadh) Altar***

It's Lammas, or Lughnasadh, the Sabbat where many Pagans choose to celebrate the beginnings of the harvest. This Sabbat is about the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth -- the grain god dies, but will be reborn again in the spring. Depending on your tradition, you may also observe this Sabbat as the day of the Celtic craftsman god, Lugh. Either way, you can try some or even all of these ideas -- obviously, someone using a bookshelf as an altar will have less flexibility than someone using a table, but use what calls to you most.

Colors of the Season

It's the end of summer, and soon the leaves will begin to change. However, the sun is still fiery and hot. Use a combination of summer and fall colors -- the yellows and oranges and reds of the sun can also represent the turning leaves to come. Add some browns and greens to celebrate the fertility of the earth and the crops being harvested. Cover your altar with cloths that symbolize the changing of the season from summer to harvest time, and use candles in deep, rich colors -- reds, burgundies, or other autumn shades are perfect this time of year.

Symbols of the Harvest

The harvest is here, and that means it's time to include symbols of the fields on your altar. Sickles and scythes are appropriate, as are baskets. Sheafs of grain, fresh picked fruits and vegetables, a jar of honey, or loaves of bread are perfect for the Lammastide altar.

Honoring the God Lugh

If your celebrations focus more on the god Lugh, observe the Sabbat from an artisan's point of view. Place symbols of your craft or skill on the altar -- a notebook, your special paints for artists, a pen for writers, other tools of your creativity.

Other Symbols of Lammas (Lughnasadh)

Grapes and wine
Corn dolls
Ears of corn
Iron, such as tools or weaponry or armor
Fall flowers, such as cornflowers or poppies
Straw braids
Onion garland

***Lammas Bread Sacrifice Ritual***

Grain is the heart of Lammas, and the beginning of the harvest season is a milestone in many societies. Once the grain is threshed and milled it is baked into bread and consumed, honoring the spirit of the grain god. This ritual celebrates both the harvest and the sacrifices we make each year, as well as the sacrifice of the grain god. Decorate your altar with symbols of the season -- sickles and scythes, garden goodies like ivy and grapes and corn, poppies, dried grains, and early autumn foods like apples.

if you like, light some Lammas Rebirth incense.

For this rite, you'll need a loaf of Lammas bread and a cup of wine or water. You'll also need pieces of straw or other plant material, enough for each person in the ritual to make a small doll, and some yarn or string to tie the dolls together. Finally, you'll need a fire. You can either have a large bonfire, or a small tabletop fire in a pot or brazier.

If your tradition requires you to cast a circle, do so now.

The High Priest or High Priestess says:

It is the time of the harvest once again.
Life, growth, death and rebirth,
all have come full circle.
The god of the harvest has died once more,
That we may eat and consume him,
Giving us strength in the months to come.

The HPs hands each member of the group a sheaf of straw, saying:

We now create dolls in our image.
These dolls symbolize our selves, in our many aspects,
and all the things we give up each year,
so that we may thrive and flourish later on.

Each member of the group constructs a doll to represent themselves.

When everyone has completed their dolls, the High Priestess says:

The god of grain is dying,
vegetation returns to the earth.
We call upon the gods of the harvest,
asking them for their blessings.
Tammuz and Lugh,
Adonis, Dumuzi,
Cernunnos and Attis,
Mercury, Osiris.
You are born each year,
and live in our fields
and are sacrificed as part of the cycle.

Raise energy by circling your fire or altar three times, moving in a counter-clockwise (widddershins) direction, building speed each time (you're moving against the pattern of the sun, because it's the end of the harvest season). If you like, you can increase the feeling of power by chanting one of these popular traditional Wiccan verses:

Hoof and horn, hoof and horn,
all that dies shall be reborn.
Corn and grain, corn and grain,
all that falls shall rise again.


Earth my body,
water my blood,
air my breath and
fire my spirit.

If your group is musically inclined, have half the group sing the "Hoof and horn" part, and the second half sing the "Earth my body" verse, so that it forms a round robin. The effect is amazing!

When the raising of energy is complete, each person in the group approaches the fire, one at a time, and casts their doll into the fire. They can either say out loud what their sacrifice will be this year, or speak it only to themselves and the gods. As each doll is placed in the fire, direct leftover energy into the flames as well.

When everyone has made their sacrifice, the HPs holds up the loaf of Lammas bread. Say:

Months ago, we planted seeds,
and through the summer watched them grow.
We have tended the fields in our lives,
and now we are blessed with abundance.
The harvest has arrived!
Thank you, lord of the harvest,
For the gifts yet to come.
We eat this bread, grain transformed by fire, in your name,
and honor you for your sacrifice.

The HPs breaks off a piece of bread for herself, and passes it around the circle, so that everyone can take a piece. Eat the bread, and then pass around the cup of wine or water. If you wish, you can say something as the cup is passed, like:

May you reap the blessings of the harvest.

Once everyone has eaten their bread and sipped from the cup, take a moment to reflect on what you have harvested for yourself this season. End the ritual as you normally would or move directly into a Cakes and Ale ceremony or other rites you wish to perform.

Have a blessed Lughnasadh

~Elder Airwolf~

Legion of Pagans August 2015 Newsletter

August 2015~Lughnasadh

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~*Month Features for August*~
Lore of the Moon of the Month
Monthly Correspondence
Lore on the Tree of the Month
All about the Ritual
Foods & Crafts
Monthly Spell
Other Notable Days

~*Moon Names for August*~

August Dog Days Moon Fruit Moon Women's Moon Dispute Moon Corn Moon Lightening Moon Wyrt Moon Sturgeon Moon Grain Moon


~*Elements for The Month of August*~

Zodiac: Leo & Virgo
Planet: Sun & Mercury
Element: Fire & Earth

Gods & Goddesses: Harvest and Grain Deities, New Mother Goddesses, Celtic god Lugh, Sun Gods, Aine, Ceres, Frey, Ishtar, Persephone, Taillte, Tailltiu, Tea and Tuaret, Bes, Bran, Dagon, Llew, and Odin, The Mother, Dana-Lughs wife and queen, Tailltiu-Welsh-Scottish, Demeter-Greek, Ceres-Roman grain goddess honored at Ceresalia, the Barley Mother, Seelu-Cherokee, Corn Mother, Isis, Luna-Roman Moon Goddess, other agricultural Goddesses, the waxing Goddess

Tarot: Strength & Hermit
Colors: Gray, Yellow, Gold, Green. Colors usually associated with this time of year are earthy oranges, browns, yellows, and golds. The colors are used to symbolize the harvest and the sense of renewal that comes with it. Often, worshippers use these colors in every aspect of their celebration.
Herbs: Grains, Grapes, Sloes, Pears, Heather, Blackberry, all Berries, Oat, Fenugreek, Frankincense, Heather, Hollyhock, Mistletoe, Oak, Sunflower, cornstalks, frankincense, Calendula, Myrtle, Oak Leaves, Rose, Sandalwood and wheat may be burned; acacia flowers, corn ears, myrtle, oak leaves, and wheat may be decorations.
Incense: Dried Rose Petals, Aloe, Sandalwood, Barley, Basil, Wood aloes, rose hips, rosemary, chamomile, eucalyptus, safflower, corn, passionflower, frankincense, sandalwood
Tree: Hazel
Flower: Acacia Flowers
Stones: Carnelian, Aventurine, citrine, peridot, sardonyx, yellow diamonds and citrine

Notable Days :
August 1st ~ Lammas/Lughnasadh
August 5th ~ Celtic Hazel Tree Month begins
August 14th ~ New Moon
August 15th ~ Isis' Birthday
August 17th ~ Legion of Pagans Class Registrations Begins
August 26th ~ Ilmatar's Feast, Finland
August 29th ~ Full Lightening Moon




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Happy Birthday Isis


Mistress of Magic:

Isis (called "Aset" by the Egyptians), a daughter of Nut and Geb, is known in Ancient Egyptian mythology as a goddess of magic. Wife and sister of the god Osiris, Isis was originally considered a funerary goddess. After her resurrection via magic of Osiris, who had been killed by his brother Set, Isis was considered "more powerful than a thousand soldiers" and "the clever-tongued one whose speech never fails." She is sometimes invoked as an assistant in magical rituals in some traditions of contemporary Wicca.

The Love of Isis and Osiris:

Isis and her brother, Osiris, were recognized as husband and wife. Isis loved Osiris, but their brother Set (or Seth) was jealous of Osiris, and planned to kill him. Set tricked Osiris and murdered him. Isis was highly distraught. She found Osiris' body within a great tree, which was used by Pharaoh in his palace. She brought Osiris back to life, and the two of them conceived the god Horus.

Depiction of Isis in Art and Literature:

Because Isis' name literally means "throne" in the Ancient Egyptian language, she is usually represented with a throne as a depiction of her power. She is often shown holding a lotus as well. After Isis was assimilated with Hathor, she was sometimes depicted with the twin horns of a cow on her head and with a solar disc between them.

Beyond Egypt's Borders:

Isis was at the center of a cult that spread far beyond Egypt's boundaries. The Romans were aware of the cult's existence, but it was frowned upon by many of the ruling class.

The emperor Augustus (Octavian), in attempt to return Rome to the worship of Roman deities, decreed that worship of Isis was forbidden. Isis was absorbed into the cult of Cybele, which held bloody rites in honor of their mother goddess. The cult of Isis moved as far afield as ancient Greece, and was known as a mystery tradition among the Hellenes until it was banned by Christianity around the sixth century BCE.

Goddess of Fertility and Motherhood:

In addition to being the fertile wife of Osiris, Isis is honored for her role as the mother of Horus, one of Egypt's most powerful gods. She was also the divine mother of every pharaoh of Egypt, and ultimately of Egypt itself. She assimilated with Hathor, another goddess of fertility, and is often depicted nursing her son Horus. There is a wide belief that this image served as inspiration for the classic Christian portrait of the Madonna and Child.

Goddess of Magic:

After Ra created all things, Isis tricked him by creating a serpent that ambushed Ra on his daily journey across the heavens. The serpent bit Ra, who was powerless to undo the poison. Isis announced that she could heal Ra from the poison and destroy the serpent, but would only do so if Ra revealed his True Name as payment. By learning his True Name, Isis was able to gain power over Ra.

Goddess of Death and Rebirth:

After Set murdered and dismembered Osiris, Isis used her magic and power to bring her husband back to life. The realms of life and death are often associated with both Isis and her faithful sister Nephthys, who are depicted together on coffins and funerary texts. They are usually shown in their human form, with the addition of the wings that they used to shelter and protect Osiris.

Isis for a Modern Age:

Isis and Gardnerian Wicca

The Order of the Golden Dawn, founded by William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, recognized Isis as a powerful triple goddess. Later, she was passed down to modern Wicca when it was founded by Gerald Gardner.

Kemetic Wicca is a variation of Gardnerian Wicca that follows an Egyptian pantheon. Some Kemetic groupsfocus on the trinity of Isis, Osiris and Horus and utilize prayers and spells found the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead.

Other Isiac Traditions

A number of contemporary Pagan traditions have adopted Isis as their patron Goddess and she is often found at the heart of Dianic Wiccan groups and other female-centered covens. Although modern Wiccan worship does not follow the same structure as the ancient Egyptian ceremonies that were once used to honor Isis, today's Isiac covens incorporate Egyptian lore and mythology into a Wiccan framework, bringing the knowledge and worship of Isis into a contemporary setting.

In addition to these widely recognized traditions, there are countless eclectic Wiccan groups throughout the world that have selected Isis as their deity. Because of the strength and power displayed by Isis, spiritual paths that honor her are popular among many Pagans and Wiccans who are seeking alternatives to traditional patriarchal religious structures. Worship of Isis has seen a resurgence as part of the "Goddess-oriented" spirituality that has become a notable part of the New Age movement.


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Lammas, Lughnasadh Lore


Lammas honors first harvest, when the seeds we have sown provide the fruits of the season. We must look at our lives this past year, and appreciate the progress of our growth. Projects and personal goals we have set into motion in the spring now reap their bounty, and it is so important for us to examine these changes and see how we are affected. Some people, with the change of the calendar year, make personal oaths, whether it is spending less money, kicking a bad habit, or spending more time with loved ones. Lammas is the day when we can look at what we have accomplished so far, and see if we have been true to ourselves.

Lammas can be as simple or as complex a sabbat as you wish. You can use the day to give thanks for what you have, or to look deeper into yourself and how the season affect you. How ever you choose to celebrate this day, keep in mind that sabbats are for honoring the God and Godess without and within us all.

The first harvest. Lammas-loaf mass celebrates the grain that is now harvested and promises sustenance during the coming winter. It is also a reminder of the dying God, as darkness keeps taking over the light of day, the beginning of Autumn. Traditionally, the seeds from the fruits consumed during the feast are saved, and any sprout is planted in honour of the God and Goddess.

Related Deities: Harvest and Grain Deities, New Mother Goddesses, Celtic god Lugh, Sun Gods, Aine, Ceres, Frey, Ishtar, Persephone, Taillte, Tailltiu, Tea and Tuaret, Bes, Bran, Dagon, Llew, and Odin, The Mother, Dana-Lughs wife and queen, Tailltiu-Welsh-Scottish, Demeter-Greek, Ceres-Roman grain goddess. honored at Ceresalia, the Barley Mother, Seelu-Cherokee, Corn Mother, Isis, Luna-Roman Moon Goddess, other agricultural Goddesses, the waxing Goddess

Related Herbs and Flowers: Grains, Grapes, Sloes, Pears, Heather, Blackberry, all Berries, Oat, Fenugreek, Frankincense, Heather, Hollyhock, Mistletoe, Oak, Sunflower, cornstalks, frankincense, Calendula, Myrtle, Oak Leaves, Rose, Sandalwood and wheat may be burned; acacia flowers, corn ears, myrtle, oak leaves, and wheat may be decorations.

Related Stones: Carnelian, Aventurine, citrine, peridot, sardonyx, yellow diamonds and citrine

Related Incense and Oils: Dried Rose Petals, Aloe, Sandalwood, Barley, Basil, Wood aloes, rose hips, rosemary, chamomile, eucalyptus, safflower, corn, passionflower, frankincense, sandalwood

Related Symbols: All Grains, Breads, Threshing Tools, Berries-especially Blackberries

Related Colors: Gray, Yellow, Gold, Green. Colors usually associated with this time of year are earthy oranges, browns, yellows, and golds. The colors are used to symbolize the harvest and the sense of renewal that comes with it. Often, worshippers use these colors in every aspect of their celebration.

Related Themes: A lot of the themes focus not only on the harvest but on underlying ideas such as renewal, giving thanks, making sacrifices. Mourning is also a theme that is highlighted, since Lughs games were an origin of the holiday.

Related Activities and Rituals: At this time of year, worshippers celebrate in various ways, whether in solitude or as part of a family or group. Harvesting one's own crops, participating in games, reciting chants in honor of the season, baking breads and berry pies for feasts or for sacrifice in rituals, and arts & crafts like making corn dollies and harvest knots are all ways in which Lammas is honored.

Related Tools-Symbols-Decorations: Corn, cornucopias, red, yellow flowers, sheaves of grain such as wheat, barley, oats, first fruits-vegetables of garden labor, corn dollies, baskets of bread, spear, cauldron, sickle, scythe, threshing tools, sacred loaf of bread, harvested herbs, bonfires, bilberries, God figures made of bread or cookie dough, phallic symbols  
Meaning: Lughs wedding to Mother Earth, Birth of Lugh; Death of Lugh, Celtic Grain Festival Rituals-Magicks: Fire magick, Money spells, health spells,bonfires, prosperity, and generosity, continued success, good fortune, abundance spells.

Related Customs: Games, the traditional riding of poles-staves, country fairs, breaking bread with friends, making corn dollys, harvesting herbs for charms-rituals, Lughnasadh fire with sacred wood and dried herbs, feasting, competitions, lammas towers-fire building team competitions, spear tossing, gathering flowers for crowns, fencing-swordplay, games of skill, martial sports, chariot races, hand-fastings, trial marriages, dancing round a corn mother-doll 


Lammas Ritual


Altar Supplies: incense; burner; chalice of water; salt; pentacle; dagger or

sword; 4 Element candles; chalice of wine; plate of bread. Cauldron with an

orange or yellow candle in it. Fall flowers, ivy and leave for decoration.


Cast the circle as usual:

Light the cauldron, say:

O Ancient Gods of the Celts,

I do ask your presence here.

For this is a time that is not a time,

In a place that is not a place,

On a day that is not a day,

And I await you.

Set the plate of bread on the pentacle. Stand still and breathe deeply for a

few moments. Concentrate upon the cleansing power of the breath and air.

When you are ready, say:

I have purified myself by breathing

in the life force of the universe

and expelling all evil from me.

Lift the plate of bread high, then set it back on the altar. Say:

I know that every seed,

every grain is a record of ancient times,

and a promise to all of what shall be.

This bread represents life eternal

through the cauldron of the Triple Goddess.

Eat a piece of bread. Put the chalice of wine on the pentacle. Hold high the

wine chalice, then set it back on the altar. Say:

As the grape undergoes change to become wine,

So by the sacred cauldron of life shall I undergo change.

And as this wine can give man enchantment of the divine

Or sink him into the lower realms, so I do realize

That all humans rise or fall according to their strength and will.

Drink some of the wine. Say:

As in the bread and wine, so it is with me.

Within all forms is locked a record of the past

And a promise of the future.

I ask that you lay your blessings upon me,

Ancient Ones, that this season of wanting not be so heavy.

So mote it be!

Open the circle and conclude the ritual as usual.



Hazel, the tree of wisdom and learning, adds its strength to the bright fire burning.


Tree of Knowledge
Ninth month of the Celtic Tree calendar (August 5th - September 1st)
Ninth consonant of the Ogham alphabet - Coll

Planet: Mercury

Element: Air

Symbolism: Wisdom & Divination, Poetry & Science, 

Playfulness & Enchantment, Healing Arts

Stone: Topaz, Pearl

Birds: Crane

Color: Orange

Deity: Hermes, Aengus, Artemis, Diana

Folk Names: Coll


Medicinal properties: 

To clear a stubborn cough, finely powder the nuts and mix with water and honey.

The leaves can be used in teas to treat such ailments as varicose veins, circulatory problems, fevers, diarrhea and excessive menstrual flow.

Hazelnuts are a good source of protein, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.


Magickal properties: 

Wands made of this wood symbolize white magick and healing. Forked sticks are used to find water or buried treasure. If outside and in need of magickal protection quickly draw a circle around yourself with a hazel branch. To enlist the aid of plant fairies, string hazelnuts on a cord and hang up in your house or ritual room. Magically, hazel wood is used to gain knowledge, wisdom and poetic inspiration. 

Hazel wood is excellent for making all-purpose magickal wands. 

Weave hazel twigs into a crown. Put this on your head and wish very hard. Your wish may come true!

Twigs of Hazel are placed in window frames to protect the house against lightning, and three pins of hazel wood driven into your house will protect it from fire. 


Lammas Crafts



The following are a few suggestions for activities that may be incorporated into the Sabbat ritual or engaged in during the day. 

Make sand candles to honor the Goddess and the God of the sea. 
If you don't live near a beach, you can achieve the same effect by putting sand in a large box, adding water, and working from there. This is definitely a porch or kitchen job, and newspapers are recommended under your work area for easy clean-up. 

Melt wax form old candles (save the stubs from altar candles) in a coffee can set in a pot of boiling water. Add any essential oil you want for scent (or scent blocks from a candle supply store). Scoop out a candle mold in wet sand (you can make a cauldron by scooping out the sand and using a finger to poke three "feet" in the sand). Hold the wick (you can get these ready-made in arts and crafts stores) in the center and gently pour in the melted wax. Wait until it hardens, then slip your fingers under the candle and carefully lift it out and brush off the excess sand. 

String Indian corn on black thread for a necklace. 
If the Sabbat falls on a rainy day, you could collect rainwater in a glass or earthenware container, add dried mugwort, and use to empower objects. 

Create and bury a Witch's Bottle. This is a glass jar with sharp pointy things inside to keep away harm. You can use needles, pins, thorns, thistles, nails, and bits of broken glass; it's a good way to dispose of broken crockery, old sewing equipment, and the pins that come in new clothes. Bury it near the entry to the house (like next to the driveway or the front door), or inside a large planter. 

Do a Harvest Chant when serving the corn bread at dinner: 
The Earth Mother grants the grain, 
The Horned God goes to his domain. 
By giving life into her grain, 
The God dies then is born again. 

Make a Corn Dolly to save for next Imbolc. 
Double over a bundle of wheat and tie it near the top to form a head. Take a bit of the fiber from either side of the main portion and twist into arms that you tie together in front of the dolly. Add a small bouquet of flowers to the "hands," and then you can decorate the dolly with a dress and bonnet (the dress and bonnet may be made out of corn husks if you wish, or and cotton material is fine too). 

Bake corn bread sticks. 
You can find a cast-iron mold shaped like little ears of corn in kitchen supply shops. Preheat the oven to 425 degrees. 

1 cup flour 
1/2 cup corn meal 
1/4 cup of sugar 
3/4 teaspoon salt 
2 teaspoons baking powder 
2 eggs 
1 cup milk 
1/4 cup shortening 

Sift dry ingredients together, add eggs, milk, and shortening then beat until smooth. Pour into molds and bake for 20-25 minutes. 

Collect blackberries and make a fresh pie marked with the Solar Cross. 

Have a magickal picnic with libations to the earth of bread and wine. 

Sprout wheat germ in a terracotta saucer (these can be found in nurseries for use under terracotta flowerpots). 
The sprouts can be added to homemade bread or used as an offering. Children enjoy planting the seeds and watching them grow, too. 

God the grain, 
Lord of rebirth. 
Return in spring, 
Renew the Earth. 

Make a Solar Wheel or Corn Man Wheel: 
Turn a wire hanger into a circle (standard circle material for wreaths too), keeping the hook to hang it by. 

Make a small cardboard disk to glue the corn tips onto. You can decorate it with any design, for example, a pentagram or sun. 

Place ears of Indian "squaw" corn (it is smaller than regular corn and fits easily on a coat hanger) with the tips in the center of the circle and secure with hot glue to the cardboard disk. Use eight ears for a Solar Wheel, or five ears for a Corn Man. If all the ears of corn meet just right you won't need the disk, but if they are uneven the disk is helpful. 

Wrap a bit of the husks of each ear around the wire on either side of the ear of corn, leaving some to stand out free from the corn. 

Let dry overnight and hang on the front door. 

Activities taken from "Green Witchcraft" by Anne Moura (Aoumiel) 

Corn Dolly

You will need: 
Dried corn husks 
Twine or string 
Colored markers 
Construction paper 

Soak your husks in warm water until they become pliable (1 hour). Bunch together several damp husks and tie a piece of twine around them about 1/2 inch from one end. To make the head, hold a bunch by the tied end and, one at a time, fold the husks down over the twine as if you were peeling a banana. 

Smooth the husks to create a face, then tie another piece of twine around the doll's neck. For the arms, tightly roll up a single husk, starting at one long edge. Use twine to tie it off at both ends where the doll's wrists should be. Now fit the arms between the husks below the head and then tie off the doll's waist. 

To fashion a skirt, arrange several more corn husks so that they are inverted around the doll's waist. It will look as if a skirt has blown up over the doll's head. Tie the husks in place around the waist, then fold the skirt down and smooth the husks. For pants, divide the husks below the waist into two groups and tie each one at the ankle with twine. 

Now draw on facial features and other details. Then glue on a braided twine hairdo and clothes made from construction paper or pieces of fabric. 

Corn Wheel

You will need: 
A round wire or other hoop on which to build the wreath 
8 ears of corn of equal length -- dried or fresh 
A short piece of ribbon or twine (for hanger), 
Florist's wire (optional) 

Fashion a round hoop wide enough to accommodate the length of two ears of corn. Using ribbon or twine, form a loop to serve as a hanger. Tie or glue this securely to the hoop. 

Position the eight ears of corn inside the circle, paying close attention to the illustration. Be sure to keep the hanger/ribbon positioned at the top of the wreath. Tie or wrap the corn shucks around the hoop. (They can be held in place with florists wire, if need be.) Use stray ends of the shucks to cover the hoop completely. (If using dried corn, the shucks should have been soaked in water before starting.) 

Use florist's wire to keep the shucks in place. Cut a small, round piece of cardboard. Lay the wreath on the table and position the cardboard circle in the middle of the hoop. Using a glue gun or some other fast drying glue, adhere the tips of the ears to the cardboard circle on the BACK SIDE of the wreath, being careful that the cardboard is not obvious from the front. You may want to cut out the middle of the cardboard circle so it cannot easily be seen from the front. Allow the glue to dry and hang. 




How to Create a Shamanic Fire Ceremony.
Fire allows for rapid transformation. It provides the avenue to let go of the old story and drama, to transform, to renew and to be reborn. Through fire ceremony, you honor your lessons and old belief structures by placing them in the fire and turning them over to Spirit. By releasing these old patterns and beliefs into the fire, you heal deeply at the level of the soul without having to experience them at the literal and physical levels.

Fire ceremony, one of the core ceremonies in many medicine traditions, is typically held around the full or new moon of each month when the veils between the worlds are the thinnest. In the past, when fire ceremony was taught, it was only done with a teacher for years and years before ever doing it alone. Now, shamans say that the earth and our civilization are in such great peril that fire ceremony should be held by anyone who is willing to step in. The fire itself will become your teacher and will let you know immediately if your intention is pure.

The steps to the ceremony are simple, it is only important to remember that you are creating ceremony:

Before coming to the fire circle, create an offering out of burnable materials, typically a small stick. This “spirit arrow” can represent an issue or something that needs to be honored in order for you to let go of it. The offering serves to focus one’s attention in active meditation. The object can be decorated or left as is.

Connect with what you are honoring, the gifts you have received, or what you are envisioning into being. Using your breath, blow this intention or prayer into the offering several times.
Ideally, you would want to do your fire out-of-doors if possible. Though fire can be done indoors, even with a candle, creating the ceremony outdoors allows you to connect deeply to the earth, the star energies and the timelessness of the location where you are holding the fire. When you are first learning, it is recommended to hold fires at night. The darkness will help you notice subtle changes and learn from the fire.


To prepare the fire:

Place kindling in the form of a Southern Cross and then build a short teepee of wood over it. Fill in with paper and kindling as needed. Remember, this is a small ceremonial fire, not a large bonfire. (For many years I would even use pie sized aluminum pans to build my fires).
Sacred space should be called in and then the fire can be lit. As the fire burns there is a beautiful chant that you can use to keep you centered and to occupy the mind. The chant calls upon the spirit of the waters beneath the earth to take your offering to Spirit. Here is the chant.


Nitche Tai Tai, N-U-Y
Oro Nika Oro Nika
Hey Hey…Hey Hey

Ooo Ai.

The following is not a literal translation, but expresses the chants essence:

O Great Mother, Mother of the Waters
We call on you, waters of our birth
Waters of our sustenance
Waters that cleanse us on our death
Waters of life.

The fire should then be “made friendly” with three offerings of olive oil (you could also use sage or tobacco):

The first offering honors the four directions and after your honoring, olive oil is sprinkled on the fire. The fire should be allowed to burn until you sense it is time for the second offering.
The intention of the second offering is to honor the heavens and earth and again after olive oil is sprinkled, allow the fire to burn for some time.
For the third and last offering, connect the circle around the fire by honoring “all” those present. This may include the spirits of the land or ancient energetic beings you may sense, but not see.

With the addition of these offerings, the fire will become “friendly”, change color and burn in a different manner. You will notice this change through discovery, practice, direct observation and experience.

When the fire is friendly, approach the fire and silently put your offering into it. The fire will transform your offering(s) and prayers back to light, turning them over to Spirit. In the same way sunlight wraps around the stick as it grows, the offering now goes back to the light wrapped with your prayers.
If you have someone attending the fire with you they can stand behind you to “hold the space” so all of your attention can be with the fire. If you are holding ceremony alone, invite the lineage to “stand” behind you.
As your offering burns, put your hands briefly through the smoke and fire. Draw the energy of the fire into the three main centers of your body – into the belly, into the heart, and into the forehead. Legend and lore says if you come with pure heart and intention, the fire will not burn you. You can touch the flames lightly or go deeply into them. When you place your hand into the flame, it is not meant to be sensational or dramatic, but rather a way to focus attention and energy upon your transformation.
One additional offering is then placed in the fire for the mother earth. It is typically called the “Pachamama” stick, or “mother earth” stick. Have each person in the circle blow their prayers for the planet into the offering before it is placed into the fire.
Sacred space is then closed. You should stay with the fire until all the prayers are consumed. Ideally the fire is allowed to burn to embers. Water should not be placed on the fire to extinguish it, only dirt if necessary.

There is a two-week period following a fire ceremony in which “instances of opportunity” appear. These “instances” provide the opportunity to translate your intent for healing, into reality. You are advised to think of the fire ceremony not as an instantaneous magical change, but rather, an opening to heal and shift distinctive habits and patterns – to manifest a different dream. Remember to recognize this “opening” and seize the opportunity to create change – then let the universe take care of the details.

Fire ceremony allows us to source from our soul and to re-remember how we have sat around sacred fires throughout time. Any time you feel “blocked”, or are working on what you want to dream into your life fire is an incredible tool to help you change and shift. My children love to participate in fire ceremony with me. They often bring their personal “stick” offerings for what is going on in their lives. We encourage you to invite family and friends to your fire ceremony. Many Light Body graduates hold monthly fire ceremonies in their own communities. These ceremonies are often open to the general public.

At this time of tremendous change, our souls long for ceremony. As you work with fire as ceremony, you will develop your own unique rituals.

Take the leap now! Join medicine men and women throughout the world in fire!

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In The Blue Moon Rituals

Blessed Blue Moon Day Pagans! 


“Leo dominates the stage as any lion should and his enormous presence will be hard to miss. His energy will liven up the mood and help us tap into our creative side. Opportunities for some plain ‘ol fun will be around too—if you’re in need of some lightening up…I’d throw some showy love into the mix too because lions really enjoy a good theatrical display of affection. If you’re in the mood for love of any kind, the planets will align perfectly and help to make it happen.”

So with all this positivity, love, affection, and creative energy in the mix, what are some rituals to perform to harness this great energy?

1. Manifest Your Wishes

What would you like to achieve in 2015? Harness the power of the full moon by bringing your dreams into reality. Write down a wish list of five things you would like to manifest. Be specific! For example, if you say, “I would like a car,” you could get a beat up old Volkswagen passed on from our great aunt Mildred. That’s the thing about manifesting, you have to be specific. If you say you want to “fall in love,” you could fall in love and then just as quickly fall out of love. Instead, try to write something like, “I would like to attract a life partner who supports me, cares for me, and is looking for a commitment.” Once you have written your wishes, fold them up and place them under your pillow before you go to bed tonight. The power of the full moon will take your wishes up and begin the manifestation. But remember, you are the most important part of this equation. The first step of manifesting is believing in the possible results.

2. Meditate Under the Full Moon

If it’s too cold to head outside (which is the case for most of us), go to the closest window and find a spot to sit or lay down. Make sure you can see the moon and feel the moon rays shining down. Use deep, long breaths to calm you and ground you and as you close your eyes focus on the color orange. Our creative energy is linked to our sacral chakra, so as you meditate try to focus your breath down to your pelvis. Clear your mind of thoughts. When thoughts arise, acknowledge them and then let them go. Instead, try to focus on feelings and sensations. Listen to any quiet voices inside your head. This is your intuition. What is arising?  Try to meditate for at least 10 minutes. When you are done, jot down in a notebook how you feel or any thoughts that bubbled to the surface. Our intuition is always there guiding us. The more we meditate, the more we are inviting our intuition to speak. If you heard some intuitive messages, write them down!

3. Call Upon the Love Goddess

This will be a powerful moon for finding love or renewing the love you already share. That’s because Venus, the Goddess of love, beauty, and prosperity, is moving into the sign of Pisces. Meanwhile, Leo is known to be the ruler of true love. Invite this love in! Be open to what the full moon has in store for you and your love life.

Try saying this out loud:

“I deserve to be happy, healthy, and free. I deserve to be loved and give love. I am grateful for all the love I already have in my life and invite any new love from the universe in with open arms.”

During the full moon, before you go to sleep, call upon Venus, Goddess of Love, to show you who your true love is in your dreams. If you are attached, ask Venus to strengthen your bond and reveal any messages of love in your dreams. Be sure to write down any strange dreams you have in the morning. The messages have come through! I use the Dream Moods website to interpret dreams and find it to be pretty accurate.

4. Give Yourself Permission

I read a really powerful article yesterday about busyness and perfection. It helped me to realize patterns that I was falling into in my life where I make myself so busy that I don’t stop and feel, and experience, and just BE. In the article, the author suggested writing a “Stop Doing” list. I think this is genius! So I wrote down my list and it is in perfect timing with the full moon. I am releasing these old habits that cause me unnecessary suffering. I am shifting my perspective so that I can continue 2015 in a new frame of mind.

Write down five things that you know you should stop doing.  I call it my GIVE MYSELF PERMISSION LIST.

Here are my five:

I give myself permission to stop feeling guilty if I am not planning
I give myself permission to say no without feeling bad about it
I give myself permission to just be myself
I give myself permission to pause, breathe, relax and not jump to the next project
I give myself permission to receive help from others and not try to do it all myself.

What is your GIVE YOURSELF PERMISSION list? Write it down or share it in the comments below!

Enjoy the full moon. It’s going to be a time of excitement and new beginnings! I hope to hear you all doing a little ROARING.


Blue Moon Esbat Ritual

This simple ritual is designed to bring in the Blue Moon energies for setting goals and making lifetime commitments to oneself that should manifest positive changes. These changes may take several weeks, months or even a full year to complete. Honor the Goddess and yourself by allowing these changes to manifest in their own time.

Perform this ritual outside under the Blue Moon if possible or indoors at a window facing the Blue Moon.

What you’ll need:

A white candle to represent the Goddess
Blue and/or white candles for decorating the altar
Blue or white altar cloth
Statue of the Goddess (optional)
Blue piece of paper
Blue pencil or wax crayon
Blue string

Decorate your altar with a blue or white altar cloth, blue and/or white candles and a Goddess statue or something that reminds you of the Goddess. You may also add anything that evokes sacred femininity for you such as flowers, a chalice or cauldron, lunar objects, et cetera.

Before beginning your ritual, perform a Moon Bath Ritual or other purification bath.

If your tradition calls for you to cast a circle, do so now. Light the Goddess candle and standing in the Goddess position and say:

“Hear me Lady from high above
I stand this night in light and love
I ask for your heart and hand to guide
As I perform this sacred rite

Blue Moon so full and bright
The thirteenth moon of lunar sight
May triumph reign upon this night
As change begins by Blue Moon light”

Light the rest of the candles if you’ve added them to your altar. Now take some time to meditate about all the changes you want to make, the goals you want to set for yourself, the commitments you want to make. Write them down on the blue piece of paper with a blue pencil or wax crayon. When you are done, roll the paper up and tie the blue string around it. Now, holding it in your hand say something like this:

“Gracious lady bring to me the changes that I seek
And grant to me upon this night your feminine mystique
Give me the strength to follow through in everything I do
And in my heart place upon joyful devotion to you
Guide my steps and where I walk with pride and humbleness
To speak my truth from my heart where boundless love abides
And at the end of the day when I lay down my head
May I be blessed by the things that I have said
Help me to serve in all the tasks that I am led to do
With verve and loving kindness so that I may honor you
Gracious lady this I ask in all sincerity
By doing this may I stand tall, upright and carefree”

Now light the paper and place it into your cauldron, fire pit or whatever you use for this purpose. Imagine all your changes coming to fruition and when you are ready you may end the ritual according to your tradition.


 Be Blessed Pagans!




1 (3 oz) package strawberry Jell-O mix

1 cup tequila

1 cup boiling water

approx 10-15 lime shells (depends on the size of your limes)

black sesame seeds


1. Mix Jell-O in boiling water until dissolved. Stir in tequila.

2. Slice limes lengthwise in half, in order to hollow shells. Make sure your cut is lengthwise, like in the photo above. Using a sharp knife, cut around the flesh (carving into the white part of the skin),  and then use your fingers to pry out the flesh.

3. Pour Jell-O into lime shells and refrigerate until set, about 4 hours. Place about 8 black sesame seeds on each jell-O shot before serving.




First, for some of the more wide spread misconceptions about Druidism. By far the largest misconception is the taking what little factual, accurate and genuine information is found in books that were all written by non-Celtic authors and mostly conceived by opposing groups like the Romans and the early Christians, and using this information as what many new age Pagans base their creed upon. While some of these authors may not have an opposing view and perhaps even taken up more of a favorable stand point, anything they perceived of the Druids was that of an outsider's and another culture's point of view. They therefore, lacked for the most part the information necessary to discern noteworthy acts from those, which were more mundane, or even which practices were symbolic and which were not. A person observing a Druid, wearing white robes, and performing any act could very easily believe that this was a ritual and standard occurrence, when in fact it may have held merit only for that particular Druid.

Another all too common fallacy is that male Druids were slightly superior to Druidic women, and that women and men Druids should always work apart. The Bronze Age, Wessex culture and even late stone age people that formed in Celtic history and pre-dated the Iron Age Druids held women in the same regard as men in terms of knowledge and magickal prowess and that ideal was carried on well into the times post-dating the Druids. In Druidic orders, men and women were considered equals. They would ascend within the order solely based on each individual’s abilities, skills and gifts. The Druids believed as the cultures before them, that they were able to achieve the greatest balance by men and women working together. Thus, as their ancestors before them have been proven to believe through modern science and archeology, the greatest power in their ceremonies, magick and life itself were ideally to be achieved through balance in all things both living and non-living. It wasn't until much later when the Celtic peoples had begun to change due to outside cultural influences that men and women split in the Druidic orders. So while this split did exist, it was not viewed as a favorable change. Most felt that the rituals and magick lost much of its power due to imbalance.

Most people are of the belief and even the most scholarly insist that the Druids were completely erased by Roman carnage and the Christian conversions. Although not many survived, some did, in fact live to pass on their knowledge in secret, usually through their families and often using the oral traditions of their peoples so there would be no physical documentation of their continued existence. Many families across Europe did this in order to avert persecution. Some of these families lore was lost forever; others were eventually discovered, then killed or converted due to fear, misunderstanding or just plain intolerance. Some of the enduring families merged by means of wedding. Hence, a small number continue to exist to pass down their traditions and lore. However, this knowledge was sometimes kept at a great cost. Some families became mistrustful and extremely leery of any unfamiliar person(s); Having an aversion to or even fearing all outside of their particular family circle, and causing a loss in part of the great love and pride that was the Celtic Druidic life. Majority of these families for the most part are very uninclined to share any of the knowledge they preserved, even when times have changed so that persecution is unlikely. Much of the lore was lost even in these families, and more changed due to the natural flow of time. I am living proof that some information remained and stayed fresh in the minds of my family’s lore, traditions and practices, which may have very well been altered in some ways but never the less was passed on to me orally and otherwise (texts that were in fact written by my family) down through the centuries. Druidic knowledge did not diminish but rather, evolved along with the passing ages of the world, and since Druids generally embrace change due to the ever-expanding pool of wisdom to be learned and an insatiable thirst for knowledge, even those surviving families have knowledge that is different from the Gaulish Celtic Druids.

Many people debate whether or not Druids were the priests of the Celtic peoples. In fact, they were not priests in the traditional sense of the term. They did not guide the faith of the people, as faith was viewed as an individual matter. They taught their people the divine aspects of their gods and goddesses, lore, and magick within nature. They presided over rituals and aided their clans to find the balance within themselves through magick and otherwise. The Greek’s termed the Celts as being, "natural philosophers"—a fitting idiom, as the Druids spent much of their time exploring the mysteries of nature and the universe.


Druidic History and Structure

The Early beliefs and philosophies of Shamanistic Stone and Bronze Age people are directly linked to the practices, lore and traditions of the people who later merged to form the Celts and Ancient Druidism. It was these shamanic principles that gave them a system deeply rooted in the ways of Nature. The Druids formed a belief structure that revolved around the concept of balance in all aspects of life and even death. Some believe the word Druid comes from the ancient Celtic word "Druii", meaning, "Wise" (and closely linked to the word meaning "Oak”) and id, which means "One", so Druid literally means “Wise One”. Another common belief is the the Gaelic word "Draoi" meaning "Magician" is the derivitive of the term Druid given the Druids close relation with magick this would also seem to make sense and hence the Gaelic term "Draiocht" which means literally "what Druids do".

The earliest beginnings of the Druids almost certainly began as small, select groups that worked collectively to help smooth the progress of their individual tribes. While this was proven effective when and where there were few tribes, the Druids soon came to the realization that they also needed to be aware of the other tribes in order to keep their own tribe in balance. This led to the Druid groups working in conjunction, as one. As the population grew, tribes expanded and more tribes formed, the Druids began to gradually work closer together. Efforts were made to jointly combine their knowledge and to understand their world more clearly. By the time the Scythians fused with the Celts, the Druid groups had become a united front, devoted to keeping all the tribes in balance with Nature and the Otherworld. Acknowledging and appreciating that the Druids were amongst the wisest and most intelligent, the Celtic people granted the Druids the authority to originate the 1st laws of Celtic society.

Around this time, certain Druids began to make a distinction from the rest of the group and specialize in particular aspects of Druidism. Possessing a vast memory and a fondness of music, these Druids were very passionate-natured. They enjoyed orally passing down the histories and tales of the Celts. They became known as Bards and were eventually given their own place in Celtic society. They became the keepers of the laws the Druids produced, as well as the historians, poets, and musicians of the tribes. Another subdivision of Druidism was the Ovate. The Ovates were the healers and shamans; the philosophies of herbs, tree lore and animal lore were their mandates. Ovates were charged with the learning and teaching of life, nature, death and rebirth, magick and divination. The awareness of time itself or the cyclical and seasonal nature of life was also the Ovate’s domain, including moon and sun lore. To actually attain the title of Druid, one had to first be a Bard or Ovate. Ovates had to be able to recite word for word and be able to demonstrate mastery of the aforementioned subjects: all tree, herb and animal lore, healing all magick learned, divination and a full understanding of cyclical time and it’s function to progress. Bards had to recite word for word and play note for note from memory all 350 songs, prose, poems, stories and laws written by the Druids all through the Bardic training. It was when they had displayed mastery over all of these things and only then that the Druid initiate was allowed to progress and learn the ways of the Druid. Druids presided over disputes and all legal matters, ruled over and led the ceremonial and non-ceremonial rituals alike, they taught the Bards and Ovates. Druids were always consulted in matters regarding state, war, progress, nature, science, spirituality and the divine. The Druids were often both Bard and Ovate learning all the lessons of each.

After merging, the Celtic tribes emigrated westward and finally settled in Gaul and Iberia, or modern day France and Spain. They later expanded to the areas of Albion, Eire and the surrounding isles (now the British Isles). They found new plants, creatures, and terrains in their travels. They attained new knowledge and wisdom through these new discoveries, and integrated them into their society and beliefs. When they arrived in Gaul they discovered a rich, fertile land, suited to a wide variety of crops. The Gaulish Celts established a flourishing culture and became one of the most advanced cultures of that era by means of necessity and invention.


Druidic Frame of mind

The Druids were renowned for their inquisitiveness and enthusiasm to find the answer to any and all questions posed to them and otherwise. They were extremely dedicated to their people and Nature. Druids were very unbiased in their beliefs regarding learning new things, frequently apt to accept any view or new concept as a possibility until it was established to be inaccurate or false. Druids understood that there were various paths to enlightenment and truth, and that no single path was superior to any other. All paths were valid.



A Druid began their training around the age of five, or soon after any person was deemed gifted by the divine, nature or otherwise. This training lasted for at least fifteen years and sometimes as long as twenty. The training was harsh on the body and the mind, for some key factors were survival and the ability to influence and control Nature’s raw energy. A person had to possess extreme endurance for Druidic training. Usually the students were taught by all the Druids of a community, and would amalgamate their knowledge. Students were called upon to occasionally teach lessons they had learned to newer pupils, and it is in this manner that initiates could then advance as expeditious as their natural abilities permitted. The Ovates’ and Bards’ initial training began in much the similar method. They both were educated on the histories of their people and the principles the tribe abided, and both learned the basic creed of the other's classes. Thus an Ovate had basic Bard craft, and a Bard knew the first lessons of the Ovate. This was to ensure that the two classes had a firm understanding of each other because they often closely worked together and to attain the title of Druid, an initiate must hold mastery over one if not both sub-divisions.

A person who studies Druidism learns as much as possible from many various fields. They access information, take it in, revere and appreciate it, no matter if even it seems trivial at that particular moment. A Druid is for all intents and purposes a "walking magickal, mystical encyclopedia". The lore gathered by the Druids is used to further their understandings of the intricacies of the complex universe and worlds around them—both the seen and unseen.


Druidic Rankings

Advancement in Druidic society is threefold. First, the student must demonstrate a strong and solid understanding of the knowledge and lore they have absorbed, often in an oral presentation, reciting the lore and skills they have learned. Second, A Druid must do more than reiterate; they must be able to personally interpret the lore they learn. Third, the student receives a sign from Nature or the Divine that they are ready to advance.

The positions attained within Druidic society are derived from the structural makeup of a tree.


The first is the Leaf (Guiteraes). A Leaf is expected to take in as much information as possible. During this time they begin to understand and create order within their mind and gain knowledge of basic control over the body. To move up they must display an ability to recite what they have learned and the importance of the material.

At this point they progress to the Branch (Maghivellwyn). The Branch learns plant and animal lore, and how to commune with living and nonliving things. They also learn at this time how to commune with the elements, basic healing craft, and combative, defensive, and divining magick. They must time and again prove their skills in a test against Nature in which other Druids use both magick and physical obstacles to assess the student's ability and development.

Upon the successful passage of the Branch test, the apprentice is now considered a full Druid-though a Druid never completely stops learning. They are called the Trunk (Llwellyn). At this point they are expected to gain knowledge through their own path. They study what fascinates them, sharing whatever wisdom they attain with others. This stage in Druidic training is highly dangerous, as they are always experimenting with new magick and methods for older magick. They are expected to devote time daily to the progress of their clan and Nature.

If a Druid surpasses the accomplishments of Trunk level, Nature will call the Druid to lead. They become the Root (Themaoddis), and are called a Head Druid. They are expected to aid other Druids. They are aware of the happenings within and outside of their grove. They are also responsible for the creation of tribal laws. They are the link between the Otherworld and Nature for other Druids.

Occasionally this is not enough, and Nature will call upon the most powerful and wise Druids to lead all the Druids in an area. They are known as the Tree or the World Around the Tree (Aretha) or Arch Druid. They are expected to solve whatever imbalances are at hand in their area when they take this position.


The Druids and Magick Magick is the potential for creation and the ability to affect change within and outside of the body and ones surroundings. This potential resides in everything. Magick is the energy that exists in everything—living and nonliving, spiritual and physical. This energy connects all, binding it together. Druids use the energy that derives from within themselves and the energy of the things around them to perform magick. This energy is never forcibly taken from others, but always politely requested. Thanks and offerings to beings that assist the Druid are common (and recommended). A Druid uses this energy to aid others. Arrogance has no place in Druidic magick. If anything, a Druid is profoundly respectful for they acknowledge the existence of many beings and creatures of far greater power than the Druid. They are aware of how little they truly know, and how much there is still to learn.


Druids Within the Celtic Tribe

Druids chose many different abodes and styles of life. Some lived in houses or huts like their tribe. Others lived in caves. Still others had no specific home, but lived outside in the Nature that they served. Druids usually preferred simple dress, most often a robe. There was no specific color for the robe. The robe was whatever color the wearer preferred but most often was white or off-white symbolizing purity of the spirit and powerful light magicks. The exception was that Leaves and Branches usually wore grey (symbolizing formlessness or potential). Only in specific rituals would a Druid wear a pre-determined color, and even then it was not mandatory. Others in the tribe usually gave Druids any material things they requested (food, water, clothing, shelter if asked).


Druidic Ceremonial Sacrifice

Many are horrified when they discover that sacrifice was a very real and widely practiced part of ritual Druidism. At one point or another, sacrifice was also a part of virtually every culture in the world. Both animal and human sacrifices performed by the Druids followed a few very specific rules. First, the sacrifice must be willing, Celtic peoples as well as various many other cultures viewed death very differently then modern man. Death was merely the beginning, a doorway into the Otherworld of the Divine, spirits and ancestors, and the ideal of life, death, and rebirth was ever present so it was not a bad thing to die and to die in ritual sacrifice was said and thought to be very mystical and revered. Second—the willing sacrifice must feel absolutely NO PAIN. These were the two unbreakable rules of sacrifice, and to break these rules rendered the sacrifice unfit. Druids performed sacrifices as appeals for aid to the Otherworld and as pleas to Nature to sway the forces to a particular act. An unwilling sacrifice would not carry a petition to the spirits or the forces of Nature. Likewise, a sacrifice in pain would be in poor condition to relate an appeal to the Otherworld or Nature in understandable terms. Sacrifice in this manner is no longer necessary in Druidism.


The Solitary Druid

It is difficult to practice solitary Druidism because the original structure was that of a group working together. A Druid aids anyone in need, and a solitary without others for support is often weighed down by the pressure of all they need to do. Those who wish to be solitary Druids would find it easiest to assist people in specific areas rather than trying to solve every problem they encounter. In addition, since a solitary has no one to test and gauge their progress, they must have a strong connection to Nature, as Nature will be the primary teacher. Regardless, a solitary must gather large amounts of knowledge. Without a group to share this task, the solitary is solely responsible in searching for lore. However, a Druid working alone will amass great inner strength and power from treading the solitary path. Often a solitary's connection with Nature is much stronger than a Druid’s connection that is in a grove. The information in these pages can be adapted for solitary practice while still retaining its validity, essence, and power.


Druid Beliefs

Druidic Beliefs

The druids were responsible for the religious teaching and practices of the Celts. They preserved the knowledge of the gods and were responsible for the sacrifices of animals, and sometimes of human sacrifices.

The Gaullish druid was a mediator between the mortals and gods; they stand between worlds, and in the case of Irish and Welsh myths, between the otherworld and mortal planes. The druids derived part of their magic powers and their divinations from the Otherworld.

Celtic Deities

There were no temples built for the Celtic gods in the pre-Roman conquest. Shrines and sanctuaries were found outdoor at sacred groves or near sacred lakes. Sacrifices, human and animal, took places at these sacred sites. Icons made of either of wood or stone, were stored in the shrines, along with sacred, precious artefacts. Hauls of silver and gold were deposited into the holy lakes and rivers.

According to the Roman historian Tactius, one of the centre of the druids were at the sacred grove on the island of Anglesey. In AD 61, because of human sacrifices that took place, the Romans under Suetonius Paulinus took action to eradicate the bloody practices; druids were massacred and groves were destroyed.

Julius Caesar could only observed the deities of Gaul, and designate Roman names to the Celtic gods where they are familiar to the Roman pantheon. The Gallic Mercury was the most important god. Other important deities were Mars, Apollo, Jupiter, Minerva.

It was only when Gaul and Britain had become provinces, did the Celts have temples built and the Celtic deities receive Romano-Celtic names. Despite these names, all the inscriptions on these Gallic and British deities were written in Latin, since neither Gauls nor the Britons have their own writing systems. The Romans were renown for adopting new gods and religions. Some of the Romans, who lived aboard, had adopted these Gallic deities. Only the horse goddess Epona was worshipped in Rome itself. See Gallic Deities and British Deities.

If we wished to know about the Celtic deities we must investigate them from ancient Celts and not from writing preserved in the medieval manuscripts. Though the Irish and Welsh people found in literature were thought to be gods originally, they were not worshipped, but they did have special power that kept them young.

The only source in the Irish literature that indicate that Irish worshipping a god, in the usual sense, come at the reign of the high king, Tigernmas. Tigernmas was said to have introduced the worship of Crom Cruach. Human sacrifices were performed before the stone idol of Crom Cruach.

Some ancient Gallic deities such Belenus, Danu, Lugus, Ogmios and Epona survived the early spread Christianity to be transmitted into Bel, Ana, Lug or Lugh, Ogma, and Macha – the Irish deities of the Tuatha De Danann. However, they were not "gods" in the usual sense of the word, but have being watered down as fairies, by the Christian authors. See Tuatha Dé Danann (Irish Deities).

While the Welsh had transmitted Belenus/Bel into Beli, Danu/Ana into Don, Lugus/Lug into Lleu, and Epona/Macha into Rhiannon. The British god Nodons was transmitted into the Welsh Nudd, who was sometimes equated with Nuada Airgetlám. See Welsh Deities.

Ignoring the Irish and Welsh literatures, and concentrating on the ancient Gaul and Britannia during the Roman empire, you will find that there is no Celtic pantheon, such as the Greek and Roman Olympians or the Norse Aesir. There are hundreds of Celtic gods and goddesses, where some are more popular in Continental Europe and the British Isles (such as Lugus, Belenus, Epona, Matres, etc), while others are only worshipped in certain region or by a tribe (such as Vosegus, Nehalennia, Sequana, etc).

See the Gallic Deities and British Deities for individual articles of ancient Celtic gods and goddesses.



A ‘ Shaman’ is a name that goes way back to ancient times. It means someone who connects to Nature’s Natural elements of Earth, Fire, Water & Air. Uses Nature’s Plant-Life and Minerals for various Healing Rituals and Meditations. They are Spiritual Visionaries & Nature’s Natural Healers/Seers. Shamanism is the name used to categorise the ways of the Shaman. Other Names used are the ‘Medicine Man’ or ‘Witch Doctor’

‘WitchCraft’ the Spoken Word it’s ‘self’ Creates Curiosity to the Curious! Arousal & Awareness to the Mind? The Movement of Energy, using the Elements of Earth, Fire, Water, Air, the use of Nature’s Herbs (Plant-life or Fungus) use of Sex! the World of ‘WitchCraft’ creates great Interest! The Mind Wonders with Curiosity; Creating an Assortment of Visions of Sorcerers, Myth & Magic; But What is WitchCraft?

Shamanism technically refers to the medicine practices of the tribes in Siberia, and has been used in reference to the medicine people of Asia and the Americas. The term shaman has become a catch phrase for some basic techniques and concepts found worldwide, regardless of the tribe, culture or religion that surrounds it. This perpetuates the idea of tools for “core shamanism” that can be used by anyone, because they appear to be universal. Techniques of core shamanism include:

• Using trance techniques such as drumming, dancing and plant substances to induce an altered state of consciousness.

• While in an altered state of consciousness, projecting your awareness to a non-physical world, often by climbing some form of cosmic axis. Many cultures describe the axis as a world tree, reaching into three worlds: the heavens, the world of human life and the underworld.

• Contact with non-physical spirits who can grant advice or healing power.

• Working with the spirits of animals and plants, both in the physical and non-physical worlds.

Core shamanism has led to the concepts of Celtic shamanism, Norse shamanism and even Wiccan shamanism. An old Celtic druid or seer who practices these techniques never referred to himself as a shaman, just as a Siberian shaman would never call himself a Siberian druid. But many of the basic concepts are the same, particularly in regard to other worlds, spirit working and journeying. Shaman has become a modern default term.

In modern witchcraft, many focus solely on the craft of the witch, through spells, rituals and holiday celebrations. While this is a wonderful place to start, and many traditions focus exclusively on these tools, the mysteries of witchcraft are very shamanic. Those who explore witchcraft further learn to work deeply with the spirits, and to work on healing all levels of their being. The old hedge witch knew spellcraft, herbalism and how to work with the spirits. Witches are known to communicate with animal familiars, the deceased, faeries, angels and gods. One of the first definitions of a witch that I learned from my teachers is a “a walker between the worlds.” That phrase is also used to describe shamans. We stand with one foot in the physical and one foot in the spiritual, both firmly rooted. We act as the gate between worlds — a crossroads to aid others on both sides. We form partnerships between the human and spirit worlds for the good of all.

feminine shamanism, witchcraft & magick; invoking woman’s power

Author(s): D. J. Conway


In a Celtic society of the ancient world, the tribal communities were divided into various classes. Above the common people such as the peasants and the artisans, there were the warrior classes, and then the ruling classes, such as the kings or the chieftains, who were are above the rest. But there was another class of people that enjoyed a very status. They were known as the druids.

Most of what we know about the ancient Celtic people in history, come from observances of classical Greek and Roman writers, as well as from archaeological evidences such as from the possessions of dead in burial sites and from shrines found throughout central and western Europe, as well as from the British Isles.

Historical writings about the Celts began in the 1st century BC, by the Greeks and the Romans. Though, the Romans and the Greeks had encountered the Celts in wars centuries earlier, it is only the 1st century BC that historians began to observe their cultures and customs.

The first important description about the Celts, come from the writing of Posidonius (c. 135-51 BC), the Syrian Stoic philosopher, who described the Celtic society. Posidonius may have provided extensive description of the Celts, none of his works survived, except from references from other works, most particular by Strabo, Greek geographer of the 1st century AD. Strabo mentioned Posidonius as his main source about the Celtic society.

Contemporary to Posidonius, was the great Roman general and statesman, Julius Caesar (100-44 BC), who described the barbarians in his memoir, the Gallic Wars, during his campaigns in Gaul (France and Belgium) and southeast England. It seemed that Caesar's writing was probably influenced by Posidonius' description on the Celts, but Caesar did have first-hand encounter with the Celts, some of them serving him in his army as allies, such as the Aedui.

Both writers give us descriptions of the priestly class, known as the druids and druidesses.

Caesar wrote further that druidism had probably originated in Britain, and later introduced druids into Gauls. Whether this statement is true or not, many modern scholars and historians had researched and speculated endlessly upon the origin of the druids.

To Caesar, the druids were secretive but learned group, who enjoyed special privileges among the Celtic population. They did not have to fight in wars and they were exempted from paying taxes. They acted as judges in disputes and they presided over those who commit act of crime, as well as setting penalties. They could travel any where without hindrance from any tribes.

Though, there are many benefits of becoming a druid, it is still not an easy life. It may take over 20 years to learn the philosophy, divination, poetry, healing, religious rites and magic. And all this without committing anything to writing. The druids, or any Gaul for that matter, were fully aware of writing down their knowledge, but chose not to do so, because they preferred to rely on memories. For the druids, their pupils were required to exercise their mind.

The Gauls and the druids were not illiterate. Because of the trades between the Gauls and the Greek city of Massilia (modern Marseille) in southern France, the Gauls had earlier used Greek letters, mainly for trade purposes. The druids had never used the Greek writing to record their knowledge and customs. After Roman conquest of Gaul and Britain, later the Celts had adopted Roman letters for mainly commercial purposes. There are some inscriptions found in sacred sites, such as in shrines and sanctuaries.

Caesar observed that the Gauls were very religious, and they always wait for the druids to perform the necessary rituals or sacrifices. The Celts didn't build any temples to their gods. The druids practised their worship in the open air, such as at sacred groves or near sacred lakes.

According to Caesar and other classical writers, the Gauls believed in the souls being immortal, where it passed on to another body after death. In another words, they believed in reincarnation or eschatology.

Druidical Order

In ancient Gaul, the druidical order was divided into three groups: druidae, vates or uatis, and bardi. Likewise, Ireland had similar classes, and they were called druidh, filidh and baird. However, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish one group from another, because the druids are required to learn all skills.

druidae or druidh

Classical authors described the ancient druids in Gaul and Britain having many different duties. They were teachers, philosophers, physicians, priests, seers and sorceress.

They were generally responsible for teaching the noble class and their druid apprentices. With the noble class, they mediate any dispute. They have jursidiction over disputes, as well as trying cases and setting penalties of criminal acts. They could travel to anywhere without restriction and receive hospitality from all household.

As a priest, the druid was responsible for performing sacrifices. Sometimes, the druids would perform human sacrifices. The druids were the priests who would communicate with the gods on behalf of the Celtic people.

As seers or soothsayers they were known as vates, while the Irish called them filids. See the next section for more detail.

In the Irish and Welsh texts, the druids were seen as teachers, healers, seers and wizards, but not as priests. Unlike the Gallic druids, they didn't pray to any god nor did they ever perform sacrifice.

With the Irish myths, the druids were more like sorcerers than priests. The druids were not just confined to the Danann people. There were druids among the Partholonians, Nemedians and Milesians. Even the Fomorians had their own druids. Unlike the druids of historical Gaul and Britain, there was no rules against writing.

In the Welsh myths, a druid was called dyn hysbys, which means wizard.

vates or filidh

The Gaullish vates or uatis and the Irish filidh were the seers and soothsayers, gifted in divination.

Both Caesar and the orator Cicero (106-43 BC) wrote of meeting a druid, named Divitiacus, an Aeduan, whom they highly respected. Divitiacus was known for divination by the means of augury.

According to the classical writers, these druids would butcher a man, to foretell the future. How they bled and observing their convulsions of their victim's limbs can tell them about the future, or at least read or interpret omens. Modern scholars are dubious of some of the accounts of the classical writers on ritual sacrifices, who were probably political motivated to record such events, as a mean of propaganda, to stamp out the druids.

Prediction of the future in Irish and Welsh myths are numerous to tell here. Among the famous, predictions were Cathbad foretelling the tragedy that would upon Ulster because of Deirdre, or Fedelm foretelling the defeat of Medb's army was the result of a single hero, Cu Chulainn.

There are many prophecies with the Black Book of Carmarthen, in poems attributed to Myrddin, the antecedent to Merlin. Most of these prophecies concerned the fates of Britain.

bardi or baird

The bardi or baird were the poets and singers. They seemed to be the lowest order of the enlightened ones, yet in Irish and Welsh myths they can sometimes play even more important roles than a king or a warrior. They were often known for their wisdom as well as for their poetry.

Historically, Irish and Welsh poetry mainly survived in oral tradition, not in writing. However, the oral tradition was well developed before writing were used. By the time the poems were written down, it may have been influenced by Christianity.

Whether in Gaul, Wales or Ireland, the bards commanded almost as great a respect as the druids. In some cases, the bards played a prominent role in Irish or Welsh narratives. Amairgin, son of Míl was able to counter any sorcery of the Danann druids. Taliesin had used his poetry to spellbind the court of Maelgwn Gwynedd.

Taliesin was a shadowy figure, because he was said to have been a historical person, but he is mainly known for poems attribute to him and the legends were more substantial than any historical account we have of him. The 9th century historian, Nennius, had listed him as one of five early great poets, known as cynfeirdd, who were said to have live in the 6th century. The other poets were Aneirin, Talhaiarn Cataguen, Bluchbard and Cian (Guenith Guaut). No works survived from the last three poets.

Magick under the Moon

Moon Magick

                             Moon Magick

* New Moon Magic *

New Moon workings can be done from the day of the new moon to three-and-a-half days after. The new moon is for starting new ventures, new beginnings. Also love and romance, health or job hunting.

* Waxing Moon Magic *

From seven to fourteen days after the new moon.The waxing moon is for constructive magick, such as love, wealth, success, courage, friendship, luck or health.

* Full Moon Magic *

From fourteen to seventeen-and-a-half days after the new moon. Prime time for rituals for prophecy, protection, divination. Any working that needs extra power, such as help finding a new job or healing for serious conditions, can be done now. Also, love, knowledge, legal undertakings, money and dreams.

* Waning Moon Magic *

From three-and-a-half to ten-and-a-half days after the full moon.The waning moon is used for banishing magick, for ridding oneself of addictions, illness or negativity.

* Dark Moon Magic *

From ten-and-a-half to fourteen days after the full moon. The dark moon is a time for ridding oneself of bad habits, Binding spells, for exploring our darkest recesses and understanding our angers and passions. Also bringing justice to bear.

influences chart – days of the week



sunday – the sun

General success, business partnerships, job promotions

Professional success. Friendships, joy, and mental, physical health

Also benefit from this.


monday – the moon

Woman issues, family, home, health, garden, and medicine, as well as

Psychic development and prophetic dreaming.


tuesday – mars

Men, conflict, physical endurance, and strength, lust, hunting, as well as sports. Surgical, and political ventures


wednesday- mercury

The energy in this day benefits efforts involving; writers, poets, actors, teacher, and students, as well as self-improvement, and understanding.


thursday- jupiter

Jupiter governs, and influences; material gain, success, accomplishment, honors, awards, legal issues, luck, gambling, and prosperity.


friday- venus

Friday belongs to Venus, and Venus governs love, sensuality, sex, matters of the heart, pleasure, comfort, music, arts, or aromatherapy.


Drawing Down the Moon

 This is an extremely important ritual in many neo-Pagan Witchcraft traditions. During the ritual the high priestess of the coven enters a trance and becomes the Goddess, which is symbolized by the moon. This transformation is accomplished with the help of the high priest, who invokes, or draws down, the Goddess into the high priestess.







The origins of the ceremony can be traced to classical times. Ancient Thessalian witches were believed to control the moon, according to an old tract: “If I command the moon, it will come down; and if I wish to withhold the day, the night will linger over my head; and again, if I wish to embark on the sea, I need no ship, and if I wish to fly through the air, I am free of my weight.”

In the modern rite, the high priestess has the option of reciting the Charge of the Goddess, a poetic address written be Doreen Valiente, a high priestess in the Gardnerian tradition (see Gerald B. Gardner, or delivering a spontaneous address.

Drawing Down the Moon is one of the most serious and beautiful rituals in neo-Pagan Witchcraft. Depending on the altered state of consciousness (see Altered States of Consciousness) of the high priestess and the ceremonial energy raised, the words that come forth can be moving, poetic and inspiring. During the Drawing Down the Moon, many women connect with the power of the Goddess and therefore with the power within themselves.

To capture more of the essence of this rite the description of it given by Margot Adler in her book Drawing Down the Moon will be paraphrased. After listening to a tape called Drawing Down the Moon sent to her from a coven in Essex, Adler writes: “I did not know it then, but in this ritual, one of the most serious and beautiful in the modern Craft, the priest invokes into the priestess (or, depending on your point of view, she evokes from within herself) the Goddess or Triple Goddess, symbolized by the phases of the moon. She is known by a thousand names, and among them were those I had used as a child. In some Craft rituals the priestess goes into a trance and speaks; in other traditions the ritual is a more formal dramatic dialogue, often of intense beauty, in which, again, the priestess speaks, taking the role of the Goddess. In both instances, the priestess functions as the Goddess incarnate, within the circle.”

On the tape the background music sounded as if it might have been Brahms. The voices of the man and woman possessed an English accent. Clear were the words of the invocation:

Listen to the words of the Great Mother, who was of old also called Artemis, Astarte, Melusine, Aphrodite, Diana, Brigit, and many more other names…”

Judging from Adler’s descriptions this one ritual of Drawing Down the Moon can, and sometimes does, embody many of the major activities of modern Witchcraft. Generally the ritual is conducted within a circle, sometimes called a magic circle. The circle is a place set apart; its physical location makes no difference, because in the mind it becomes a sacred place through its casting and purification. It is a placed between worlds where the gods are met.

Within the circle psychic power is raised, a work that is known as “raising thecone of power.” This is accomplished through music, chanting, and dancing that can at times combine the wills of the participants. When the priest or, more often, the priestess senses the cone of power has been raised she can focus and direct it with the mind toward its destination. One such destination, or purpose, is the psychic healing of someone who is sick, or the purpose might be to seek something which is needed by someone.

This is the essential reason why gods and goddesses are invited into the circle. When the moon is drawn down, the high priestess often enters a trance in which the Goddess possesses her. Acting as the incarnate Goddess, the priestess speaks and acts as the Goddess. The circle’s psychic power now becomes Goddess power. Frequently this is thought of as a mystical experience, and possibly it could be class as monistic mysticism. Similarly, when the God force is drawn into the circle, the high priest becomes the God incarnate. The latter ritual is known as Drawing Down the Sun or Drawing Down of the Horned God or Calling Down the Moon.

The state of the altered consciousness that the high priest or priestess experience during the ritual determines the after effect that is felt, some priestesses have said they feel the presence of the Goddess within them for days afterwards. Others have reported seeing changes within some persons following such rituals, but also say there are pretenders. A.G.H.

Dark Faeries

Dark Fairies, The Mischief Makers

A fairy (a.k.a. faery, faerie, fay, fae) is a type of mythical being often described as a kind of spirit. Fairies are typically depicted as human in appearance with magical abilities, and are said to apply their magic to disguise themselves. In the past several animals were also thought to be fairies. Yet most people today use the word fairy to describe only the inoffensive gossamer winged creature often referred to as wee folk, fair folk, good folk, or the people of peace.

However, the term fairy offers many definitions. Long ago it was used to describe any magical creature, even goblins or gnomes. The origins of fairies are not clear in folklore. They have been classified as many things. Folklorists have even proposed that their beginnings originated from religious beliefs that lost credence with the arrival of Christianity.

Subsequently, fairies appeared as characters in stories from medieval tales of chivalry, Victorian fairy tales, and in modern literature. Although in today's literature they are envisioned as small young humanoids with wings, in the past they were depicted a good deal differently: tall, angelic beings or short, withered trolls were some of the most common descriptions. Fairy wings were uncommon, even the very tiny fairies flew on ragwort stems or on the backs of birds using magic. In fact, fairy wings only become popular in the Victorian era.

A lot of the fairy folklore revolves around protection from their mischief and malice. At one time, people regarded fairies as evil beings and were really afraid of them. They didn't want to offend the dark fairies for fear of reprisals, so they would go out of their way to avoid a confrontation.

But don't worry fairy lovers, the question as to the essential nature of fairies is still up for debate. It has been the topic of legend and academic papers for centuries. What do you believe?

"I believe in everything until it's disproved. So I believe in fairies, the myths, dragons. It all exists, even if it's in your mind. Who's to say that dreams and nightmares aren't as real as the here and now?"

~John Lennon

Oh and for those of you who like the more modern looking fairies, take a look at my favorite Amy Brown Fairy Collectibles. They are fantastic!

Protection From The Dark Fairies

Practical Considerations

At a time when people thought they might actually run into fairies, it was generally accepted that these dark fairies were mischievous and often dangerous. Tangling a sleeper's hair, stealing little items, or leading a traveler down the wrong path, were considered harmless pranks by the fairies. However, they were also blamed for more life-threatening behaviors.

Consumption (tuberculosis) was thought to be the fault of the dark fairies. They forced young men and women to dance every night, making them waste away from lack of sleep. Mysterious illnesses of domestic animals were caused by the fairies riding them.

In several legends, dark fairies liked to kidnap humans. Either as young men and women, or as babies, leaving changelings in their place. Changelings are fairy babies left in the place of stolen human children. Older individuals could also be snatched. Any woman who had given birth without a special church rite performed was thought to be in real danger. A sudden death might be a fairy kidnapping, with the apparent dead body being a wooden substitute that looks like the kidnapped person. A common warning was not to eat the fairy food if they kidnapped you. It was thought to trap the captives with the dark fairies forever.

As a result, practical considerations about dark fairies was advice on avoiding them. The most effective protective charms were cold iron, wearing your clothing inside out, running water, bells (particularly church bells), St. John's wort, and four-leaf clovers. In some lore Rowan trees are sacred to the fairies, and in other tales it's protection against them. In Newfoundland folklore, the most popular dark fairy protection is bread. Bread is connected with the home, industry, and domesticating nature. Which is why many believed that bread was disliked by some kinds of fairies. Contradictorily, baked bread is a traditional offering to the fairy folk in Celtic folklore.

There are many ambiguous pieces of fairy folklore. Bells protect against dark fairies, but a fairy riding on horseback often has bells on their harness. Of course this may be because the Seelie Court fairies use them to protect themselves from the Unseelie Court fairies. Some lore says that a cock's crow drove away dark fairies, but other stories say that fairies keep domestic fowl.

Other practical advice: Don't follow the will o' the wisp (a pale light seen at night over marshy ground). The dark fairy will lead you down the wrong path. Avoid the haunts and travel paths of dark fairies. Don't dig in fairy hills. Fairy forts (the remains of circular dwellings) should be left undisturbed. Cutting brush on fairy forts could get you killed by the dark fairies. People who said they saw the fairies were told not to look at them closely. Dark fairies resented violations of their privacy.

Not understanding how a mill worked, superstitious Scottish communities often believed that the miller must be working with the dark fairies. No one went to the mill at night because everyone knew that the fairies brought their corn to be milled after dark. A smart miller never let on otherwise. He could sleep without worrying that he would be robbed.

Home owners knocked corners from their house because the corner blocked a fairy path. Cottages were built with the front and back doors in line, so that the doors could be left open at night for the dark fairies to march through. A fairy tree was left alone in Scotland, even though it forestalled a road from being widened for seventy years.

It was also believed that a person could summon a particular fairy if they knew its name. This might insult the dark fairy, or they could grant the summoner powers and gifts. But they had to be careful, fairy gold was unreliable. It appeared as gold when paid, but later would change into leaves, gorse blossoms, gingerbread cakes, or an assortment of other worthless things.

Origins Of The Dark Fairy

* The Dead

Numerous people believed that they were the dead, or some form of the dead. A lot of the same legends were told of both ghosts and fairies. People thought it was unsafe to eat food in either Fairyland or Hades, and that both the dead and fairies lived underground. The Irish banshee means 'fairy woman' and is often identified as a ghost. One popular story is about a man who was caught by the fairies. It's said that whenever he stared directly at one, the fairy looked like a dead neighbor of his.

* Elementals

Many individuals saw fairies as a highly intelligent separate species. In alchemy (a pseudo-scientific forerunner of chemistry in medieval times) they were considered elementals, such as gnomes and sylphs (elemental beings believed to inhabit the air). Although this is not a common belief in folklore, it does account for people later describing fairies as 'spirits of the air'.

* Demoted Angels

Another popular theory (though less common than 'they were the dead') held that the fairies were a class of 'demoted' angels. The story was that after angels revolted, God ordered the gates of heaven shut. Those that were in heaven stayed angels, angels in hell became devils, and angels caught between heaven and hell became fairies. Others thought that the fairies, although not evil enough for hell, had been tossed out of heaven because they were not good enough to be angels. This may explain the stories of the fairies' traditional tithes (offerings) to Hell.

* Demons

Some people subscribed to the belief that the fairies were devils. This idea became more popular with the spread of Puritanism. The hobgoblin, once considered a nice household spirit, eventually was seen as an evil goblin. And if someone was thought to be talking to the fairies, they would have been accused of witchcraft and punished.

* Humans

A less commonly held theory was that the fairies were humans. One story tells how a mother had concealed her children from God. Later, she couldn't find them because her children had become the hidden people, or fairies.

* Celtic Folklore

The Celtic nations depicts fairies as a race of tiny people (many thought they were spirits) who were forced into hiding by encroaching humans. Most believed that the fairies lived in an Otherworld. The Otherworld has been described as being underground, in hidden hills, in hidden ancient burial mounds, or across the Western Sea.

* Pagan Deities

Many Irish legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann (a race of people in Irish mythology) cited this race as fairies, although in ancient times they were viewed as Gods and Goddesses. They were the fifth group to conquer Ireland, and was thought to have come from Islands in the northern part of the world, or even from the sky. The Tuatha Dé Danann were said to have retired to the fairy mounds after being defeated in several battles.

An alternative explanation was that the fairies were worshiped as gods to begin with, but when Christianity came about, their power dwindled. At this time fairies were considered evil beings by the church. Which is no doubt why several deities in the older legends are now depicted as fairies.

* Scottish Folklore

The Scottish people believed that the fairies were divided into the Seelie Court and the Unseelie Court. The Seelie court fairies were more benevolent but still dangerous. They enjoyed playing harmless (mostly) pranks on humans. The Unseelie court were vicious dark fairies that liked to hurt humans for fun.

Trooping fairies were fairies who appeared in groups or started settlements. Solitary fairies did not live or consort with other fairies. In Scottish lore, the term fairy can stand for any kind of mythic beings such as dwarves or elves from Germanic folklore.

Progression From The Dark Fairies

Not all folktales that use fairies are categorized as fairy tales. Medieval romances featured dark fairies as one of the many creatures that a knight errant might face. As the medieval era progressed, the fairy characters became wizards and enchantresses. However, fairies never entirely vanished from medieval romances. Sir Gawain And The Green Knight is a later story where the Green Knight is the preternatural being. Edmund Spenser sported fairies in The Faerie Queene. In many stories, fairies are often mixed in with or have replaced the nymphs (nature goddesses) and satyrs (woodland deities). John Lydgate, a fifteenth century poet and monk, wrote; "King Arthur was crowned in the land of the fairy, and taken in his death by four fairy queens, to Avalon where he lies under a fairy hill, until he is needed again."

Fairies are important characters in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer's Night Dream. His play is set in both the woods, and in Fairyland. Michael Drayton features fairies in his Nimphidia. Later there was Alexander Pope's sylphs from his The Rape of the Lock.

In the mid 1600s, the so-called spontaneous retelling of fairy folklore was a parlor game for French ladies. Many were written by Madame d'Aulnoy, who coined the phrase fairytale. However, fairies were less common in the fairy tales of other countries. The Brothers Grimm, who included fairies in their first version, decided it was not authentic German lore and changed each fairy to an enchantress or a wise woman in later editions.

Fairies in literature became popular again with Romanticism. Famous writers like Sir Walter Scott and James Hogg were inspired by fairy folklore. During this era there was an increase in original writings with fairy characters. In Rudyard Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill, Puck spurns the moralizing fairies of other Victorian compositions.

Later, there was a resurgence of older folklore in fantasy literature. C.S. Lewis's Narnia books sported hags, giants, and other beings of the fairy realm. As time advanced, the imagery of fairies in literature became smaller and more beautiful. Flower fairies were made popular because of interest in the fairy art of British illustrator and poet Cicely Mary Barker. Barker had several books published in 1923 through 1948. Andrew Lang, author of the The Lilac Fairy Book, remarked that "These fairies try to be funny, and fail; or they try to preach, and succeed."

J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan stories with its fairy character Tinker Bell has become an American icon. Barrie wrote, "When the first baby laughed for the first time, his laugh broke into a million pieces, and they all went skipping about. That was the beginning of fairies."

Creatures Described As Fairies

Of European Origin

Asrai · In English folklore, a type of aquatic fairy.

Banshee · (woman of the fairy mounds) A female spirit in Irish mythology.

Biróg · In Irish mythology, a fairy woman.

Boggart · (bogart) In English folklore, a household fairy which causes things to disappear, milk to sour, and dogs to go lame.

Bogle · (bogle, boggle or bogill) A Northumbrian and Scots term for a ghost.

Brownie · (brounie or urisk) In Scottish folklore, a somewhat mischievous hob (see hobgoblin) that helps around the house. When teased or misused excessively, Brownies become Boggarts.

Caoineag · A Scottish spirit.

Clurichaun · A drunken Irish fairy which resembles the leprechaun.

Domovoi · A house spirit in Slavic folklore.

Dryad · A tree nymph in Greek mythology.

Drow · (trowe or trow) In the Orkney and Shetland islands, a small, mischievous troll-like fairy creature.

Duergar · A race of ugly dwarfs, particularly associated with the Simonside Hills of Northumberland, in northern England.

Dwarf · From Germanic mythologies, a legendary creature resembling a tiny old man; lives in the depths of the earth and guards buried treasure.

Each uisge · (water horse) A mythological Scottish water spirit.

Elf · In Germanic mythology, a race of divine or semi-divine beings endowed with magical powers.

Erlking · (German: Erlkönig, Alder King) A malevolent creature who haunts forests and carries off travelers to their deaths.

Fairy Queen · In Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Titania is the queen of the fairies. Later fiction also used the name Titania for fairy queen characters. In traditional folklore, the fairy queen has no name.

Faun · In Roman mythology, a faun is a place-spirit of the untamed woodland.

Glaistig · From Scottish mythology, a kind of satyr (a supposed she-hag or hag in the shape of a goat) or a kind of beautiful female fairy.

Goblin · A legendary evil or mischievous creature, described as a grotesquely evil or evil like phantom.

Gnome · A small, humanoid creature that lives underground.

Gremlin · An English folkloric creature, commonly depicted as mischievous and mechanically oriented, with a specific interest in aircraft.

Haltija · A spirit, gnome or elf-like creature in Finnish mythology, that guards, helps or protects something or somebody.

Heinzelmännchen · Little house gnomes once said to have done all the work of the citizens of Cologne, Germany during the night.

Hödekin · (Hödeken, Hüdekin, and Hütchen) A kobold (house spirit) of German folklore.

Hobgoblin · In Scottish folklore, a friendly but troublesome creature of the Seelie court. A small, hairy little being who does odd jobs around the house while a family is asleep. They are fond of practical jokes.

Huldra · In Scandinavian folklore, a seductive forest creature.

Imp · Considered fallen fairies or demons and are often described as mischievous more than seriously threatening.

Klabautermann · A water sprite who assists sailors and fishermen on the Baltic Sea in their duties.

Kelpie · A supernatural water horse from Celtic folklore that is believed to haunt the rivers and lochs of Scotland and Ireland.

Kobold · A sprite stemming from Germanic mythology. Usually invisible, a kobold can materialise in the form of an animal, fire, a human being the size of small child, and a mundane object. Kobolds who live in human homes wear the clothing of peasants; those who live in mines are hunched and ugly; and kobolds who live on ships smoke pipes and wear sailor clothing.

Lares · Ancient Roman protective deities.

Leprechaun · A type of fairy in Irish folklore, usually taking the form of an old man, clad in a red or green coat, who enjoys partaking in mischief.

Lorelei · A beautiful Rhine maiden who sat upon a rock on the eastern bank of the Rhine near St. Goarshausen, Germany and lured passing navigators to their doom with her alluring singing.

Mermaid · A mythological aquatic creature with a female human head and torso and the tail of a fish.

Morgen · (Morgan or Mari-Morgan) They are Welsh and Breton water spirits that drown men.

Naiad · (Naiade) In Greek mythology, a type of nymph who presided over fountains, wells, springs, streams, and brooks.

Nain Rouge · A red dwarf that originated in Normandy, France as a type of hobgoblin.

Nix · (Nixe or Nyx) From Germanic mythology, a shapeshifting water spirit who usually appears in human form.

Nymph · In Greek mythology, a female spirit typically associated with a particular location or landform.

Ogres · A large, cruel, monstrous and hideous humanoid monster who feedings on human beings.

Ondine · Elementals, enumerated as the water elementals in works of alchemy by Paracelsus.

Pixie · (Pixy, Pixi, Piskies or Pigsies) From the areas around Devon and Cornwall, England. They are usually depicted with pointed ears, and often wearing a green outfit and pointed hat.

Psotnik · An elf, 'mischief maker', in Polish mythology.

Púca · Old Irish for ghost. (Pwwka, Pooka, Puka, Phouka, Púka, Pwca in Welsh, Bucca in Cornish, Pouque in Dgèrnésiais, Puca or Puck in English, Glashtyn, and Gruagach) A creature of Celtic folklore, notably in Ireland, the West of Scotland, and Wales. The púca is a deft shape shifter, capable of assuming a variety of terrifying or pleasing forms, and may appear as a horse, rabbit, goat, goblin, or dog.

Puck · A mythological fairy or mischievous nature sprite. Puck is also a generalised personification of land spirits. He is sometimes also considered hob and Will-o'-the-wisp.

Radande · Tree spirits in Swedish faerie mythology. They are bound to the tree they were born to for the life of the tree. Also known of as tree folk, it is said that they can take on a humanoid shape and venture a short way from their trees.

Redcap · (powrie or dunter) A type of malevolent murderous dwarf, goblin, elf or fairy found in Border Folklore. They are said to inhabit ruined castles found along the border between England and Scotland.

Rusalka · In Slavic mythology, a female ghost, water nymph, succubus or mermaid-like demon that dwelled in a waterway.

Sânziana · The Romanian name for gentle fairies.

Selkie · (silkies or selchies) Found in Faroese, Icelandic, Irish, and Scottish folklore. They can shed their skin from seals to become humans

Spriggan · From Cornish faery lore. They were grotesquely ugly, found at old ruins and barrows guarding buried treasure and generally acting as fairy bodyguards. They were also said to be busy thieves. Though usually small, they had the ability to swell to enormous size (they're sometimes speculated to be the ghosts of the old giants).

Sprite · Elf-like creatures, including fairies, and similar beings (not earth beings), but can also signify various spiritual beings, including ghosts.

Squasc · A mythological being of the Eastern Lombardy region folklore. It is small, hairy, tawny, similar to a squirrel without tail but with an anthropomorphic face. Its nature is somehow between that of a bad spirit and that of an elf or imp.

Sylph · (sylphid) A mythological creature in the Western tradition. The term originates in Paracelsus, who describes sylphs as invisible beings of the air, his elementals of air.

Tomte · (Nisse) A mythical creature of Scandinavian folklore. Believed to take care of a farmer's home and children and protect them from misfortune, in particular at night, when the housefolk were asleep.

Troll · The Nordic equivalents of giants, although often dwarf size.

Vila · (Vila, Wila, Wili, or Veela) The Slavic versions of nymphs, who have power over storms, which they delight in sending down on lonely travelers. They live in meadows, ponds, oceans, trees, and clouds. They can appear as swans, horses, wolves, or beautiful women.

Vodyanoy · In Slavic mythology and Norse Mythology, a male water spirit.

Water sprite · (water fairy or water faery) An elemental spirit associated with water, according to alchemist Paracelsus. Water sprites are said to be able to breathe water or air, and in some cases, can fly. They are mostly harmless unless threatened.

Wight · Used within the fantasy genre of literature to describe undead or wraith-like creatures: corpses with a part of their decayed soul still in residence, often draining life from their victims.

Xana · A character found in Asturian mythology. Always female, she is a fairy nymph of extraordinary beauty believed to live in fountains, rivers, waterfalls or forested regions with pure water.

Zâna · They are the Romanian equivalent of fairies and can also be considered the equivalent of the Germanic Elf. They reside mostly in the woods.

Giants · Although not considered a type of fairy, there are equivalents of giants (such as trolls) who have been described as fairy beings. In various Indo-European mythologies, giants are featured as primeval creatures associated with chaos and the wild nature, and they are frequently in conflict with the gods.

From Wikipedia

Wild Mushroom Guide

Wild Mushroom Guide

Our mushroom guide is not a comprehensive guide of UK mushrooms. There are roughly 15,000 types of wild fungi in the UK; we have provided a simple guide of the best ones to eat and the most important ones not to pick.

If you are identifying mushrooms please use multiple sources of identification and never eat anything unless you are 100% sure what it is. We will not be held responsible for the use of the information in this website. 

If you want to learn more about mushroom foraging then why not book on one of our Foraging Courses

Edible Poisonous In Season All 



Latin Name Common Name Type Season Start Season End
Agaricus augustus The Prince Edible August November
Agaricus campestris Field Mushroom Edible July October
Agaricus macrosporus Agaricus macrosporus Edible July October
Agaricus silvaticus The Blushing Wood Mushroom Edible September November
Agaricus silvicola Wood mushroom Edible September November
Amanita fulva Tawny Grisette Edible June November
Amanita rubescens The Blusher Edible June November
Armillaria mellea Honey Fungus Edible June December
Auricularia auricula-judae Wood Ears Edible All year All year
Boletus badius Bay Boletus Edible September November
Boletus chrysenteron Red Cracked Bolete Edible July October
Boletus edulus Penny Bun Edible August November
Boletus versipellis Orange Birch Bolete Edible July November
Cantherellus cibarius Chanterelle Edible June November
Cantherellus infundibbuliformis/tubaeformis Winter Chanterelle Edible August December
Clitocybe geotropa Trooping funnel Edible September December
Coprinellus micaceus Glistening Ink Cap Edible May October
Coprinus comatus Shaggy Ink Caps Edible August November
Craterellus/Cantharellus cornucopoides Horn Of Plenty Edible September November
Fistulina hepatica Beefsteak Fungus Edible August November
Flammulina velutipes Velvet Shank Edible January March
Hydnum repandum Hedgehog Fungus Edible August November
Hygrocybe coccinea Scarlet Hood Edible August November
Hygrocybe pratensis Meadow Wax Cap Edible August November
Laccaria amethystina Amethyst Deciever Edible June December
Laccaria laccata The Deceiver Edible June November
Lactarius deliciosus Saffron Milk Cap Edible July November
Laetiporus sulphureus Chicken Of The Woods Edible May August
Langermannia/Calvatia/Lycoperdon gigantea Giant Puff Ball Edible July November
Lepiota rhacodes Shaggy Parasol Edible July December
Lepista nuda/clitocybe nuda Wood Blewit Edible September December
Lepista saeva, Clitocybe saeva Field Blewit Edible N/A N/A
Lycoperdon perlatum Common Puffball Edible July November
Lycoperdon pyroformis Stump Puffball Edible July November
Macro Lepiota procera Parasol Edible May November
Marasimus oreades Fairy Ring Champignons Edible April November
Morchella esculenta Common Morel Edible April May
Oudermansiella mucida Porcelain Fungus Edible August November
Piptoporus betulinus Birch Polypore Edible All year All year
Pleurotus ostreatus Oyster Mushroom Edible All year All year
Polyporus squamosus Dryads Saddle Edible February August
Russula claroflava Yellow Swamp Russula Edible September November
Russula cyanoxantha The Charcoal Burner Edible July December
Russula ochroleuca Common Yellow Russula Edible August November
Russula parazurea Powdery Brittlegill Edible July October
Russula virescens Green Cracking Russula Edible August November
Sarcoscypha coccinea Scarlet Elf Cup Edible January April
Sparassis crispa Cauliflower Fungus Edible September November
Suillus luteus Slippery Jack Edible September November
Tricholoma/Calocybe gambosum St Georges Mushroom Edible April May
Tuber aestivum Truffles Edible August November

sitemap - ©2015 Wild Food UK

In The Stars for Thursday - The Day of Jupiter for July 23rd, 2015

Thursday - The Day of Jupiter
Magical aspects: controlled optimism, energetic growth, physical well-being, material success, expansion, money/wealth, prosperity, leadership, and generosity.
Thursday is the day of Jupiter, the largest of the planets and said to be the most powerful. Spellcasters would be wise to use this day for attempting wealth, success and prosperity spells. Thursday is also associated (in Greek mythology) to Thor - Thor's day - and some even say that Jupiter and Thor are one in the same. Both are strong and powerful, yet wise and just.
Try a small prayer to Jupiter before commencing any ritual on Thursday as a sign of respect.
This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving luck, happiness, health, legal matters, male fertility, treasure, wealth, honour, riches, clothing, money, desires, business, group pursuits, joy, laughter, and expansion.
Planetary Hours for Thursday, 23 July 2015

City: Greenwich
Country: United Kindom
Latitude: 51.483061
Longitude: -0.00415
UTC/GMT Offset: 1
Sunrise: 5:10
Sunset: 21:02
Daylight Hours: 952 minutes
Daylight Saving Time: On
Planetary influence for Thursday: Jupiter
Planetary Hours of The Day - Sunrise

Planetary Hour Length: 79 mins 20 secs
Hour    Time    Planet
1    05:10:00am - 06:29:20am    Jupiter
2    06:29:21am - 07:48:40am    Mars
3    07:48:41am - 09:08:00am    Sun
4    09:08:01am - 10:27:20am    Venus
5    10:27:21am - 11:46:40am    Mercury
6    11:46:41am - 13:06:00pm    Moon
7    13:06:01pm - 14:25:20pm    Saturn
8    14:25:21pm - 15:44:40pm    Jupiter
9    15:44:41pm - 17:04:00pm    Mars
10    17:04:01pm - 18:23:20pm    Sun
11    18:23:21pm - 19:42:40pm    Venus
12    19:42:41pm - 21:02:00pm    Mercury
Planetary Hours of The Night - Sunset

Planetary Hour Length: 40 mins 40 secs
Hour    Time    Planet
1    21:02:01pm - 21:42:41pm    Moon
2    21:42:41pm - 22:23:21pm    Saturn
3    22:23:21pm - 23:04:01pm    Jupiter
4    23:04:01pm - 23:44:41pm    Mars
5    23:44:41pm - 00:25:21am    Sun
6    00:25:21am - 01:06:01am    Venus
7    01:06:01am - 01:46:41am    Mercury
8    01:46:41am - 02:27:21am    Moon
9    02:27:21am - 03:08:01am    Saturn
10    03:08:01am - 03:48:41am    Jupiter
11    03:48:41am - 04:29:21am    Mars
12    04:29:21am - 05:10:01am    Sun
View Weekly Planetary Hours »
Planetary Hours - Influences and Activities.

Saturn Hours: Discipline and patience; giving up bad habits; overcoming obstacles; success with difficult tasks or difficult people; projects of long duration – breaking ground, laying foundations; planting perennials; treating chronic illness; making repairs; seeking favors from older people (not relatives) or difficult people.
Jupiter Hours: Wisdom, optimism; money (borrowing / lending/ investing / earning / winning); activities necessitating enthusiasm; buying lottery tickets; seeking advice / consultation; settling disputes; seeking favors from grandparents, aunts and uncles, advisers (doctors, lawyers, accountants, astrologers).
Mars Hours: Courage, adventure; enforcing your will; success with drastic action (lawsuits, conflicts, going to war, surgery); sports, exercises; risk-taking; making complaints; firing employees; seeking favors of husband or boyfriend.
Sun Hours: General success and recognition; spiritual illumination; decisiveness, vitality; activities requiring courage or a mood of self-certainty – making big decisions, scheduling meetings for reaching decisions, giving speeches, launching new projects; seeking favors from father, husband, boss, authorities.
Venus Hours: Love; friendship; artistic and social success; enjoyable, sociable and aesthetic activities such as parties, social gatherings, recitals / exhibitions, weddings, visits, dating and seeking romance; planting ornamentals; buying gifts, clothing, luxuries; beauty treatments; seeking favors from women.
Mercury Hours: Success in studies / communications; children; making a good impression; routine activities and activities needing clear communications; teaching / learning; important business letters / phone calls; meetings to develop or communicate ideas; buying / selling; routine shopping, errands, travel; job applications / interviews; seeking favors from neighbors, co-workers.
Moon Hours: Health; home (buying home, moving); journeys / vacationing (time of leaving home or takeoff); activities remote in time or space – meditation, making reservations, finding lost objects or people; planting food crops; hiring employees; seeking favors from mother, wife, employees.

Planets, Hours, & Influences

Planetary Hours

The Planetary Hours is an ancient system in which each of the seven days is ruled and recieves influences from a certain planet.

Sunday - The Sun
Monday - The Moon
Tuesday - Mars
Wednesday - Mercury
Thursday - Jupiter
Friday - Venus
Saturday - Saturn

Each day of the week has a ruling planet, with each planet having influences and attributes. For example:

Moon - The Day of the Moon: Magical aspects: peace, sleep, healing, compassion, friendships, psychic awareness, purification, and fertility.

So the best time to do spellwork/ritual/talismans involving fertility would be on Monday on the 1st or 8th hours of Day or the 3rd or 10th hours of Night.

Hours of the Day and Night

Each planetary day is divided into two half, each with 12 hours, creating 12 Hours of the Day and 12 Hours of the Night. The first hour of the Day starts with the planet it is ruled by, so the first Hour of the Day of Monday is always The Moon. Each hour is given over to the influence of a planet in the following order.


So the 2nd hour of the Day for Monday is Saturn, the 3rd hour Jupiter etc.

Calculating Planetary Hours

There are two methods that can be used to calculate when the Planetary Hours of Day and Night start. The first method is to use midnight as the start time, with the 1st hour of day starting from 00:00 to 01:00am, the 2nd hour - 01:00 to 02:00, etc. So the 1st hour of night would be from 12:00 to 13:00. This method requires no additional calculations; however it might seem strange to have the first hour of day at midnight when the outside world is in darkness.

The second method uses sunrise as the start of each day and the Hours of the Day and sunset as the beginning of the Hours of Night. Using this method you have 2 periods of 12 hours of unequal length. In order to calculate the length of each hour for the day and night, you need to know the time of sunrise and sunset for any given day and any given location. You then divide the number of minutes from sunrise to sunset by 12 to get the length of the daylight hours.

For example: You live in London and the date is 17th July 2013, sunrise occurs at 05:03 and sunset at 21:09, with a daylight length of 16h 5m 35s (965mins 35secs).

Hours of the Day Length: 965.35 / 12 = 80 mins 26secs
Hours of the Night Length: 120 mins - 80 mins 26secs or (1440 - 965.35) / 12 = 39 mins 34secs

Planetary Influences, Attributes And Activities

Sunday - The Day of the Sun

[Sunday - The Day of the Sun]

Magical aspects: protection, healing, spirituality, and strength.

Sunday is the perfect day for the magic of Fatherhood. A father wishing to cast a spell for his children might want to try a little prayer on a Sunday. However it is probably wiser to cast on a Monday if the idea is to conceive. (See Monday)

Sunday is also the day for social and political furtherment, so try going out to see some friends on a Sunday or just mingle.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving exorcism, healing, prosperity, individuality, hope, fortune, work, power, promotions, strength, spirituality, swift change, and God rituals.

Monday - The Day of the Moon

[Monday - The Day of the Moon]

Magical aspects: peace, sleep, healing, compassion, friendships, psychic awareness, purification, and fertility

Monday is ruled by the moon - an ancient symbol of mystery and peace. Monday is a special day for mothers as the cycle of the moon has long been associated with the female menstrual cycle. Those wishing to conceive a baby would be wise to try on a Monday as the magic of motherhood is strong and pregnancy is in the air.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving agriculture, animals, female fertility, messages, reconciliation’s, theft, voyages, dreams, emotions, clairvoyance, home, family, medicine, cooking, personality, merchandising, psychic work, Faerie magic, and Goddess rituals.

Tuesday - The Day of Mars

[Tuesday - The Day of Mars]

This day could only ever symbolize the sheer power of the god of war! The ideal spells to be cast on this day are that of force, power war and protection.

Dedicated to the powers of the planet Mars, personified as Ares, Tiwaz, Tiw, and Tyr. Magical aspects: controlled power, energy, and endurance, passion, sex, courage, aggression, and protection.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving courage, physical strength, revenge, military honours, surgery, the breaking of negative spells, dynamic energy, matrimony, war, enemies, prison, hunting, politics, contests, protection, victory, and athletics.

Wednesday - The Day of Mercury

[Wednesday - The Day of Mercury]

Magical aspects: the conscious mind, study, travel, divination, and wisdom. This is the best day to engage in anything dealing with communication.

With Wednesday brings the beauty of luck, the satisfaction of psychic work, increased communication and the retail success that it brings. If you feel that lady luck has been rather mean with her glances recently, it might be worth asking for a little extra something on a Wednesday and await the returns.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving communication, divination, writing, knowledge, business transactions, teaching, reason, skill, self-improvement, debt, fear, loss, intellectual pursuits, and flexibility.

Thursday - The Day of Jupiter

[Thursday - The Day of Jupiter]

Magical aspects: controlled optimism, energetic growth, physical well-being, material success, expansion, money/wealth, prosperity, leadership, and generosity.

Thursday is the day of Jupiter, the largest of the planets and said to be the most powerful. Spellcasters would be wise to use this day for attempting wealth, success and prosperity spells. Thursday is also associated (in Greek mythology) to Thor - Thor's day - and some even say that Jupiter and Thor are one in the same. Both are strong and powerful, yet wise and just.

Try a small prayer to Jupiter before commencing any ritual on Thursday as a sign of respect.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving luck, happiness, health, legal matters, male fertility, treasure, wealth, honour, riches, clothing, money, desires, business, group pursuits, joy, laughter, and expansion.

Friday - The Day of Venus

[Friday - The Day of Venus]

Magical aspects: love, friendship, reconciliation, and beauty.

Friday has often been associated with relaxation as it is at the end of the week, but the good feeling that comes with Friday also has a lot to do with the fact that it is ruled by the planet Venus - The Goddess of Love. Lusterless relationships and disputes may be settled on Fridays with the aid of a spell to Venus and perhaps a small personal sacrifice.

Friday is also associated with Caribbean wealth spells and has been known to improve friendships, Platonic love and increase your desirability. Be careful what you wish for on Friday, Venus' eyes could be smiling!

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving love, romance, marriage, sexual matters, physical beauty, partnerships, friendships, social activities, strangers, pleasure, music, incense, perfumes, nature, and arts and crafts.

Saturday - The Day of Saturn

[Saturday - The Day of Saturn]

Magical aspects: longevity, exorcism, endings, apprehension, austerity, caution, and limitations.

Not surprisingly, Saturday is ruled by Saturn. The logic and almost sly nature of Saturn is most prominent on Saturday, which is why it is the perfect day for habit breaking and scientific experimentation.

If you have someone that just will not let go of a relationship that you thought was long since dead, give a restriction spell a go next Saturday.

Human manipulation is also a very powerful aspect of Saturn's power over Saturday.

This is the proper day of the week to perform spells and rituals involving spirit, communication, meditation, psychic attack or defence, locating lost items or missing persons, self-discipline, life, building, doctrine, protection, freedom, elderly, destroying diseases and pests, crystallization, hidden or obscure matters, limitations, and boundaries.

12 Hours of the Day and Night

The following tables show the 12 hours of the Day and Night for each day of the week, showing which planet rules that planetary hour.

Planetary Hours of The Day - Sunrise

Hour Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
2 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
3 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
4 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
5 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus
6 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
7 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
8 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
9 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
10 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
11 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
12 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus

Planetary Hours of The Night - Sunset

Hour Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
1 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
2 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
3 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
4 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
5 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars
6 Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
7 Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus
8 Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury
9 Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon
10 Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn
11 Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter
12 Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun Moon Mars

Planetary Hours - Influences and Activities.

Saturn Hours: Discipline and patience; giving up bad habits; overcoming obstacles; success with difficult tasks or difficult people; projects of long duration – breaking ground, laying foundations; planting perennials; treating chronic illness; making repairs; seeking favors from older people (not relatives) or difficult people.

Jupiter Hours: Wisdom, optimism; money (borrowing / lending/ investing / earning / winning); activities necessitating enthusiasm; buying lottery tickets; seeking advice / consultation; settling disputes; seeking favors from grandparents, aunts and uncles, advisers (doctors, lawyers, accountants, astrologers).

Mars Hours: Courage, adventure; enforcing your will; success with drastic action (lawsuits, conflicts, going to war, surgery); sports, exercises; risk-taking; making complaints; firing employees; seeking favors of husband or boyfriend.

Sun Hours: General success and recognition; spiritual illumination; decisiveness, vitality; activities requiring courage or a mood of self-certainty – making big decisions, scheduling meetings for reaching decisions, giving speeches, launching new projects; seeking favors from father, husband, boss, authorities.

Venus Hours: Love; friendship; artistic and social success; enjoyable, sociable and aesthetic activities such as parties, social gatherings, recitals / exhibitions, weddings, visits, dating and seeking romance; planting ornamentals; buying gifts, clothing, luxuries; beauty treatments; seeking favors from women.

Mercury Hours: Success in studies / communications; children; making a good impression; routine activities and activities needing clear communications; teaching / learning; important business letters / phone calls; meetings to develop or communicate ideas; buying / selling; routine shopping, errands, travel; job applications / interviews; seeking favors from neighbors, co-workers.

Moon Hours: Health; home (buying home, moving); journeys / vacationing (time of leaving home or takeoff); activities remote in time or space – meditation, making reservations, finding lost objects or people; planting food crops; hiring employees; seeking favors from mother, wife, employees.