Merman - Mermen in Mermaids Mythology
Through the history of human mythology and religion, mermaids received much attention, but their male counterparts were much less showcased. While mermaids represented beauty and romance that the predominately male ship crews longed on the long journeys, mermen remained left behind in the folklore, usually shown only as a children made in a union of a man and mermaid.
In their appearance, mermen do not differ much from mermaids. They are mythical creatures who have form of an upper human torso, and a lower half of a fish tail. Originally celebrated as the deities, mermen slowly slipped back into the legends as the ordinary mythological creatures of the sea, who very rarely show up on the surface. The reason of that was sometimes because of their shyness and sometimes because their ugliness.
The best known deities that had the form of mermen were Babylonian Oannes, Ea (also known as Enki in Sumerian mythology) and Dagon (sea god of fertility). However, the most famous mermen god was celebrated in Greece. Triton, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite was regularly depicted on stone walls and pottery as strikingly handsome mermen with a fish tail. He often carried trident and twisted conch shell (which he used to control the sea and calm or raise storms) and was believed to have the power to multiply himself into host of smaller sea sprit demons called Triones. Indian Hindu religion also celebrates mermen, as they are believed to be the first incarnation of their supreme deity Vishnu (the only difference to the modern mermen is presence of two sets of arms, each holding one artifact - conch shell, wheel, Lotus and Mace).
Around the world, many cultures have their own myths and folklore tales about mermen. Here are some of the most notable ones:
Region of Amazon River is a home of a myth of boto -fresh water mermen who is responsible for seducing and impregnating many women while being transformed into full human form.
Finnish mythology is portraying mermen as powerful and handsome creatures that wield magic, and have ability to cure illnesses, lift curses and brew potions. They are most often portrayed with a beard made from sea weeds, and are sometimes capable of causing much destruction if they come to close to human civilization.
Glaccus was a man from Greek mythology who one day found a grass with magical properties. After he ate it he quickly transformed into mermen, who was shortly after elevated by the gods into one of the Greeks many sea spirits.
In Greek mythology, mermen were often illustrated to have green seaweed-like hair, a beard and a trident. In Irish mythology, mermen are described as extremely ugly creatures with pointed green teeth, pig-like eyes, green hair and a red nose. In Finnish mythology, a merman (vetehinen) is often potrayed as a magical, powerful, handsome, bearded man with the tail of a fish. He can cure illnesses, lift curses and brew potions, but he can also cause unintended harm by becoming too curious about human life.(Taken from: wikipedia.org)
The actions and behavior of mermen can vary wildly depending on the source and time period of the stories. They have been said to sink ships by summoning great storms, but also said to be wise teachers, according to earlier mythology. A merman, like a mermaid, attracts humans with singing an tones.
Mermen are rarely seen marrying human women; when this happens the merman's new bride becomes a mermaid. After parenting other mermaids or mermen the new mermaid may feel homesick for her family and friends and demand to be set free, after which the merman would have to find another bride. Matthew Arnold's poem "The Forsaken Merman" is based on this imagined situation.
Other names for Merfolk:
Ben-Varry (Manx Mermaids); Catao (Hiligaynon); Caesg (Celtic -- part trout or salmon); Dinny-Mara (Manx Mermen); Havfrue (Scandinavian Mermen); Havmand (Scandinavian Mermaid); Meerfrau; Merefolk (Phillipine Merfolk); Merfish; Merlady; Merman; Merpeople; Muirruhgach (Merrow -- Irish); Merrymaids (Cornish Mermaids); Merwife; Morgens; Neck (Scandinavian fresh and salt water Mermaids); Ningyo (Japanese human-headed fish of immortality); Sea Maids; Sea Maiden; Sea People; Sea Queen; Siren; Tritons; Undersea Folk; Underwater Folk; Water Babies; Water Maid.
Names of ancient sea gods:
Amphitrite ('The Great Embracer' -- pre-Hellenic sea Goddess); Atargatis (Syrian mermaid Goddess); Lir (Irish sea God); Mami Wata ('Mother Water' -- Nigerian mermaid Goddess); Nereus ('Old Man of the Sea' -- Hellenic sea God); Njord (Norse God of sea travel); Poseidon ('Husband of De' -- Hellenic sea God); Rân ('The Ravisher' -- Norse sea Goddess); Sedna (Inuit sea Goddess).
Mermen are mythical male equivalents and counterparts of mermaids – legendary creatures who have the form of a male human from the waist up and arefish-like from the waist down, having scaly fish tails in place of legs. A "merboy" is a young merman.
In Greek mythology, mermen were often illustrated to have green seaweed-like hair, a beard, and a trident. In Irish mythology, mermen are described as extremely ugly creatures with pointed green teeth, pig-like eyes, green hair, and a red nose. In Finnish mythology, a merman (vetehinen) is often portrayed as a magical, powerful, handsome, bearded man with the tail of a fish. He can cure illnesses, lift curses and brew potions, but he can also cause unintended harm by becoming too curious about human life. The boto of the Amazon River regions is described according to local lore as taking the form of a human or merman, also known as encantado ("enchanted one" in Portuguese) and with the habit of seducing human women and impregnating them. Chinese mermen were believed to only surface during storms or, in some cases, were believed to have the ability to cause storms.
The actions and behavior of mermen can vary wildly depending on the source and time period of the stories. They have been said to sink ships by summoning great storms, but also said to be wise teachers, according to earlier mythology. Mermen, just like mermaids, can lure and attract female humans with their enchantingly beautiful, soft melodic and seductive siren-like singing voices and tones.
The most well-known merman was probably Triton, son of Poseidon and Amphitrite. Although Amphitrite gave birth to a merman, neither Poseidon nor Amphitrite were merfolk, although both were able to live under water as easily as on land. Triton was also known as the Trumpeter of the Sea for his usage of a conch shell.
Other noteworthy mermen were the Babylonian Oannes and Ea, and the Sumerian Enki.
Another notable merman from Greek mythology was Glaucus. He was born a human and lived his early life as a fisherman. One day, while fishing, he saw that the fish he caught would jump from the grass and into the sea. He ate some of the grass, believing it to have magical properties, and felt an overwhelming desire to be in the sea. He jumped in the ocean and refused to go back on land. The sea gods nearby heard his prayers and transformed him into a sea god. Ovid describes the transformation of Glaucus in the Metamorphoses, describing him as a blue-green man with a fishy member where his legs had been.
Norse mythology, in particular Icelandic folklore, has mermen known as Marbendlar.
In Dogon mythology (not to be confused with the semitic fish god Dagon), ancestral spirits called Nommo had humanoid upper torsos, legs and feet, and a fish-like lower torso and tail.
The Russian medieval epic Sadko contains a Sea Tsar who is a merman.
Mysterious Myths About Mermaids
Almost every one out there must have seen the cartoon "The Little Mermaid" or read this book in their childhood. The mermaid has always been a creature of mystery, fantasy and unlimited beauty. Its elegance and splendour has been known to enchant people since a very long time. Even now it is one of the favourite cartoon characters of most children.
Let's take a deeper look into the mermaid mythology, its beginning, various legends, mermaid's part in literature and recorded sightings.
Merfolk As Gods
The mermaid and merman legends begin with the worship of gods as have many mythologies. The earliest representations and descriptions of these now well known creatures can be traced back as far as the eighth century BC.
The Babylonians were known to worship a sea-god called Oannes, or Ea. Oannes was reputed to have risen from the Erythrean Sea and taught to man the arts and sciences. In the Louvre today can be seen an eighth century wall-scene depicting Oannes as a merman, with the fish-like tail and the upper body of a man.
The Syrian Mythology
The Syrians and the Philistines were also known to have worshipped a Semitic mermaid moon-goddess. The Syrians called her Atargatis while the Philistines knew her as Derceto. It is not unusual or surprising that this moon-goddess was depicted as a mermaid as the tides ebbed and flowed with the moon and this was incorporated into the god-like personifications that we find in their art and the ancient literature. Atargatis is one of the first recorded mermaids and the legend says that her child Semiramis was a normal human and because of this Atargatis was ashamed and killed her lover. Abandoning the infant she became wholly a fish.
In Japanese and Chinese legends there were not only mermaids but also sea-dragons and the dragon-wives.
The Greek and Roman Mythology
Greek and Roman mythology is often placed together as the two are very similar and it is in the literature from these cultures that one finds the first literary description of the mermaid, and indeed the mermen. Poseidon and Neptune were often depicted as half-man and half-fish but the most popular motive of the ancient world that depicts mermen was the representations of the tritons, Triton being the son of the powerful sea-god.
The British Merfolk
The British Isles too had their fair share of merfolk mythology. The Cornish knew mermaids as Merry maids. According to the Cornish legend a mermaid called Moveren had made appearance in the village of Zennor and due to her interest in music she had fallen in love with one of the singers Matthew of the choir of the church. Now when this man found out about the mermaid, he too fell in love with her and together they went to live in the sea. The people of Zennor still say that they can hear Matthew sing to the mermaid and to them the whispers of waves still make sense. The Irish knew merfolks as Merrows or Muirruhgach and some sources write that they lived on dry land below the sea and had enchanted caps that allowed them to pass through the water without drowning, while the women were very beautiful the men had red noses, were piggy eyed, with green hair and teeth.
One more perception that existed in historic times and is found in most myths is that seals are really merfolk disguised under the seal skin. All the legends related to this theory usually start with fishermen finding seal skins and then a beautiful girl comes back for her property as without it she is exiled from her submarine friends. But the property is never returned and the girl is offered protection under the roof of this man. All these myths end in the same way, that is, the seal skin is discovered and the mermaid returns back to her native home. However, some stories concerning this concept are different too, for example a story is told of a man, Herman Perk, who was caught in a storm and was saved by a merman on the price that he would return him his seal skin which was in his store house. Herman perk was true to his word.
Russian mermaid mythology includes the daughters of the water-king who live beneath the sea; the water-nymph that drowns swimmers and the male water-spirit who followed sailors and fishermen. The Africans believed the tales of a fish-wife and river-witches.
But with the growth of science, the fantastic became childish specially during the eighteenth century but began to flourish again amongst the writers with the Romantic Movement at the turn of this century. It was also the time however for the logical minded to do their utmost to dispel the myth of the mermaid, claiming that all the recorded sightings were simply men who'd been at sea too long and so when a seal, porpoise, dugong or manatee was spotted from the ship they'd swear they'd seen a mermaid.
Mermaids and literature
In literature the mermaid began to be used as a description of women, rather than an identification of the creature herself. The mermaid had become a metaphor! Chaucer takes the mermaid and uses her as a scholarly metaphor for beautiful but dangerous song. Shakespeare is known to have used such a device; Comedy of Errors for example:
"O, train me not, sweet mermaid, with thy note,
To drown me in thy sister's flood of tears: Sing, siren, for thyself and I will dote."
Oberon's vision of a mermaid in Shake-speare's A Mid-summer Night's Dream, is not however used as a metaphor:
"Once I sat upon a promontory,
And heard a mermaid on a dolphin's back
Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath
That the rude sea grew civil at her song
And certain stars shot madly from their spheres,
To hear the sea-maid's music."
John Donne, however, uses the mermaid as myth in his skeptical song where he doubts constancy in women. More likely than finding this constancy in women he believes would be to:
"Goe, and catche a falling starred"
Children's stories are filled with mermaids again. The mermaid figures in art once again allowing the artist to portray the division within human nature of the "animal" and the intellectual thinking; represented by the tail of the mermaid and that human part of her that wishes to gain a soul, the prime example being The Little Mermaid by Hans Andersen where the young mermaid gains a soul through her faithfulness. It is a great marketing tool for toys and cartoons.
There have been recorded sightings from fishermen, women, men of reputation within the community of mermaids and mermen. Some are quite convincing while others are a little vague. Nonetheless they make a good reading.
The most recent sighting is of 1947 when an eighty-year-old fisherman reported that he had seen a mermaid ‘in the sea about twenty yards from the shore, sitting combing her hair on a floating herring box used to preserve live lobsters. Unfortunately, as soon as the mermaid looked round, she realized that she had been seen, and plunged into the sea. But no questioning could shake the old fisherman's firm conviction: he was adamant that he had seen a mermaid.'
Off the coast of Britain, June 4, 1857, Shipping Gazette, reported Scottish seaman had spotted a creature, ‘in the shape of a woman with dark complexion, and comely face.'
Off the Isle of Yell, 1833, six fishermen reported that their fishing line had become entangled with a mermaid. They said they had kept her on board their boat for three hours, and said that she was about three feet long. She ‘offered no resistance nor attempted to bite,' but she moaned piteously. ‘A few stiff bristles were on top of the head, extending down to the shoulder, and these she could erect and depress at pleasure, something like a crest.' She had neither gill nor fins and there were no scales on her body. The fishermen who were very superstitious threw her overboard eventually and said that she dived ‘in a perpendicular direction.'
The story was heard from the skipper by a Mr Edmondson who in turn told the Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh:
"Not one of the six men dreamed of a doubt of its being a mermaid, and it could not be suggested that they were influenced by their fears, for the mermaid is not an object of terror to fishermen, it is rather a welcome guest, and danger is apprehended from its experiencing bad treatment... The usual resources of skepticism that the seals and other sea-animals appearing under certain circumstances operating upon an excited imagination and so producing ocular illusion, cannot avail here. It is quite impossible that six Shetland fishermen could commit such a mistake."
In the outer Hebrides, about 1830, women cutting seaweed reported they had met a creature of female form playing happily off the shore. A few days later her dead body was found two miles from where she had first been seen. The description of the creature was recorded thus, ‘the upper part of the creature was about the size of a well-fed child of three or four years of age, with an abnormally developed breast. The hair was long, dark and glossy while the skin was white, soft and tender. The lower part of the body was like a salmon, but without scales.
Campbell town, John M'isaac, a farmer, October 29, 1811, made a sworn statement to the Sheriff-substitute and the parish minister that he had met a mermaid in Campbell town. The description he gave ran for more than five hundred words and was so convincing that Rev. Dr George Robertson, Rev. Norman MacLeod, and James Maxwell, Esq., Chamberlain of Mull wrote that they were, ‘satisfied that he was impressed with a perfect belief, that the appearance of the animal he has described was such as he has represented it to be.'
Now the mermaid becomes a symbol of fun and fantasy rather than an accepted part of cultural, tradition and awe. She is seen as a figure of eroticism mixed with fear of the unknown, or the animal side of her nature. No matter how the mermaid is used or what role she plays she will always retain her mysterious air.
Tituba was a major figure in the initial phase of the Salem witch trials. She was a family slave owned by the Rev. Samuel Parris. She was implicated by Abigail Williams, who lived with the Parris family, and Betty Parris, daughter of Samuel Parris, along with Sarah Osborne and Sarah Good, the other first two accused witches. Tituba evaded execution by making a confession.
She's been depicted in historical writings and historical fiction as Indian, as black, and as of mixed race. What is the truth about Tituba's race or ethnicity?
In Contemporary Documents
Documents of the Salem witch trials call Tituba an Indian. Her (likely) husband, John, was another Parris family slave, and was given the surname "Indian."
Tituba and John were bought (or won in a bet by one account) by Samuel Parris in Barbados. When Parris moved to Massachusetts, Tituba and John moved with him.
Another slave, a young boy, also came with Parris from Barbados to Massachusetts. This young boy, who is not named in the records, is called a Negro in the records of the time. He had died by the time of the Salem witch trials.
Another of the accused in the Salem witch trials, Mary Black, is explicitly identified as a Negro woman in the trial's documents.
The unusual name Tituba is similar, according to a variety of sources, to:
a Yoruba (African) word "titi"
a Spanish (European) word "titubear"
a 16th century name of a Native American tribe, Tetebetana
Depicted as African
After the 1860s, Tituba is often described as black and connected with voodoo. Neither association is mentioned in documents from her time or until the middle of the 19th century, almost 200 years later.
One argument for Tituba being a black African is the assertion that 17th century Puritans didn't differentiate between black and Indian individuals; that the third Parris slave and accused Salem witch Mary Black were consistently identified as Negro and Tituba consistently as an Indian does not lend credence to the theory of a "black Tituba."
So where did the idea come from?
Charles Upham published Salem Witchcraft in 1867. Upham mentions that Tituba and John were from the Caribbean or New Spain. Because New Spain allowed racial mixing among the black Africans, Native Americans and white Europeans, the assumption many drew was that Tituba was among those of mixed racial heritage.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Giles of Salem Farms, a work of historical fiction published just after Upham's book, says that Tituba's father was "black" and "an Obi" man. The implication of practicing an African-based magic, sometimes identified with voodoo, is not consistent with documents of the Salem witch trials, which describe witchcraft customs known in British folk culture.
Maryse Condé, in her novel I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem (1982), including in the book's title, describes Tituba as black.
Arthur Miller's allegorical play, The Crucible, is based heavily on Charles Upham's book (see above).
Thought to Be Arawak
Elaine G. Breslaw, in her book Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem, makes the argument that Tituba was an Arawak Indian from South America, as was John. They may have been in Barbados because they'd been kidnapped or, alternately, moved with their tribe to the island.
So What Race Was Tituba?
A definitive answer, one that convinces all parties, is unlikely to be found. All we have is circumstantial evidence. A slave's existence was not often noted; we hear little of Tituba before or after the Salem witch trials. As we can see from the third household slave of the Parris family, even the slave's name may be completely missing from history.
The idea that the residents of Salem Village did not differentiate on the basis of race -- lumping African American and Native American together -- does not hold up with the consistency of identification of that third slave of the Parris household, or the records regarding Mary Black.
I conclude that it's most likely that Tituba was, indeed, a Native American woman.
Known for: Tituba was among the first three people accused of being a witch during the Salem witch trials of 1692. She confessed to witchcraft and accused others.
Occupation: household slave and servant
Dates: birth and death dates are unknown
Also known as: Tituba Indian
Little is known of Tituba's background or even origin. Samuel Parris, later to play a central role in the Salem witch trials of 1692 as the village minister, brought three slaves with him when he came to Massachusetts from New Spain -- Barbados -- in the Caribbean.
We can guess from the circumstances that Parris obtained ownership of Tituba in Barbados, probably when she was twelve or a few years older. We do not know if he obtained her in settlement of a debt, though that story has been accepted by some. Parris was, at the time he was in New Spain, not yet married and not yet a minister.
See: Tituba's Race - Black, Indian, Mixed?
When Samuel Parris moved to Boston from New Spain, he brought Tituba, John Indian and a young boy with him as household slaves. In Boston, he married, and later became a minister. Tituba served as a housekeeper.
In Salem Village
Rev. Samuel Parris moved to Salem Village in 1688, a candidate for the position of Salem Village minister. In about 1689, Tituba and John Indian seem to have married. In 1689 Parris was formally called as the minister, given a full deed to the parsonage, and the Salem Village church charter was signed.
Tituba would not likely have been directly involved in the growing church conflict involving Rev. Parris. But since the controversy included withholding salary and payment in firewood, and Parris complained about the effect on his family, Tituba probably would also have felt the shortage of firewood and food in the house. She would also have likely been aware of the unrest in the community when raids were launched in New England, starting up again in 1689 (and called King William's War), with New France using both French soldiers and local Indians to fight against the English colonists. Whether she was aware of the political conflicts around Massachusetts' status as a colony is not known. Whether she was aware of Rev. Parris' sermons in late 1691 warning of Satan's influence in town is also not known, but it seems likely that his fears were known in his household.
Afflictions and Accusations Begin
In early 1692, three girls with connections to the Parris household began to exhibit strange behavior. One wasElizabeth (Betty) Parris, the nine year old daughter of Rev. Parris and his wife. Another was Abigail Williams, age 12, called "kinfolk" or a "niece" of Rev. Parris. She may have served as a household servant and a companion to Betty. The third girl was Ann Putnam Jr., who was the daughter of a key supporter of Rev. Parris in the Salem Village church conflict.
There is no source before the latter half of the 19th century, including transcripts of testimony in the examinations and trials, that supports the idea that Tituba and the girls who were accusers practiced any magic together.
To find out what was causing the afflictions, a local doctor (presumably William Griggs) and a neighboring minister, Rev. John Hale, were called in by Parris. Tituba later testified that she saw visions of the devil and witches swarming. The doctor diagnosed the cause of the afflictions as "Evil Hand."
A neighbor of the Parris family, Mary Sibley, advised John Indian and possibly Tituba to make awitch's cake to identify the cause of the initial "afflictions" of Betty Parris and Abigail Williams.. The next day, Betty and Abigail named Tituba as a cause of their behavior. Tituba was accused by the young girls of appearing to them (as a spirit), which amounted to an accusation of witchcraft. Tituba was questioned about her role. Rev. Parris beat Tituba to try to get a confession from her.
Tituba Arrested and Examined
On February 29, 1692, an arrest warrant was issued for Tituba in Salem Town. Arrest warrants were also issued for Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne. All three of the accused were examined the next day at Nathaniel Ingersoll's tavern in Salem Village by local magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne.
In that examination, Tituba confessed, naming both Sarah Osborne and Sarah Good as witches and describing their spectral movements, including meeting with the devil.
Sarah Good claimed her innocence but implicated Tituba and Osborne. Tituba was questioned for two more days. Tituba's confession, by the rules of the court, kept her from being tried later with others, including those who were eventually found guilty and executed. Tituba apologized for her part, saying she loved Betty and meant her no harm. She included in her confession complicated tales of witchcraft -- all compatible with English folk beliefs, not voodoo as some have alleged. Tituba herself wnet into a fit, claiming to be afflicted.
After the magistrates finished their examination of Tituba, she was sent to jail. While she was imprisoned, two others accused her of being one of two or three women whose specters they'd seen flying.
John Indian, through the trials, also had a number of fits when present for the examination of accused witches. Some have speculated that this was a way of deflecting further suspicion of himself or his wife. Tituba herself is hardly mentioned in the records after her initial arrest, examination and confession.
The Rev. Parris promised to pay the fee to allow Tituba to be released from prison. Under the rules of the colony, similar to rules in England, even someone found innocent had to pay for expenses incurred to imprison and feed them, before they could be released. But Tituba recanted her confession, and Parris never paid the fine, presumably in retaliation for her recantation.
After the Trials
The next spring, the trials ended and various imprisoned individuals were released once their fines were paid. Someone paid seven pounds for Tituba's release. Presumably, whomever paid the fine had purchased Tituba from Parris. The same person may have purchased John Indian; they both disappear from all known records after Tituba's release.
A few histories mention a daughter, Violet, who remained with the Parris family.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the American botanical artist, see Mary Vaux Wolcott.
Walcott at the Salem Witch Trials
Mary Wolcott (July 5, 1675 – after 1719) was one of the witnesses at the Salem Witch Trials of Salem, Massachusetts in the years 1692 and 1693.
She was the daughter of Captain Jonathan Wolcott (1639–1699), and his wife Mary Sibley (1644–1683), both of Salem, and was about seventeen years old when the allegations started in 1692. Her aunt, Mary Woodrow, the wife of Samuel Sibley (1657–1708), was the person who first showed Tituba and her husband John Indian how to bake a witch cake to feed to a dog in order that she and her friends might ascertain exactly who it was that was afflicting them. Joseph B. Felt quotes in the The Annals of Salem (1849 edition) vol. 2, p. 476 [from the town records]:
March 11, 1692 – "Mary, the wife of Samuel Sibley, having been suspended from communion with the church there, for the advices she gave John [husband of Tituba] to make the above experiment, is restored on confession that her purpose was innocent."
At the trials, she was said to be calm, but subsequently critics have accused her of everything from compromise to actually being a witch who foiled her potential adversaries by distracting their attention away from herself onto innocent persons. She married Isaac Farrar on April 28, 1696. Isaac was the son of John Farrar of Woburn, Massachusetts. They had several children, and eventually moved to Townsend, Massachusetts. Mary Wolcott also married David Harwood in 1701 in Sutton, Massachusetts. They had nine children.
The Witchcraft Trials in Salem: A Commentary
by Douglas Linder
O Christian Martyr Who for Truth could die
When all about thee Owned the hideous lie!
The world, redeemed from superstition's sway,
Is breathing freer for thy sake today.
--Words written by John Greenleaf Whittier and inscribed on a monument marking the grave of Rebecca Nurse, one of the condemned "witches" of Salem.
From June through September of 1692, nineteen men and women, all having been convicted of witchcraft, were carted to Gallows Hill, a barren slope near Salem Village, for hanging. Another man of over eighty years was pressed to death under heavy stones for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. Hundreds of others faced accusations of witchcraft. Dozens languished in jail for months without trials. Then, almost as soon as it had begun, the hysteria that swept through Puritan Massachusetts ended.
Why did this travesty of justice occur? Why did it occur in Salem? Nothing about this tragedy was inevitable. Only an unfortunate combination of an ongoing frontier war, economic conditions, congregational strife, teenage boredom, and personal jealousies can account for the spiraling accusations, trials, and executions that occurred in the spring and summer of 1692.
In 1688, John Putnam, one of the most influential elders of Salem Village, invited Samuel Parris, formerly a marginally successful planter and merchant in Barbados, to preach in the Village church. A year later, after negotiations over salary, inflation adjustments, and free firewood, Parris accepted the job as Village minister. He moved to Salem Village with his wife Elizabeth, his six-year-old daughter Betty, niece Abagail Williams, and his Indian slave Tituba, acquired by Parris in Barbados.
The Salem that became the new home of Parris was in the midst of change: a mercantile elite was beginning to develop, prominent people were becoming less willing to assume positions as town leaders, two clans (the Putnams and the Porters) were competing for control of the village and its pulpit, and a debate was raging over how independent Salem Village, tied more to the interior agricultural regions, should be from Salem, a center of sea trade.
Sometime during February of the exceptionally cold winter of 1692, young Betty Parris became strangely ill. She dashed about, dove under furniture, contorted in pain, and complained of fever. The cause of her symptoms may have been some combination of stress, asthma, guilt, boredom, child abuse, epilepsy, and delusional psychosis. The symptoms also could have been caused, as Linda Caporael argued in a 1976 article in Sciencemagazine, by a disease called "convulsive ergotism" brought on by injesting rye--eaten as a cereal and as a common ingredient of bread--infected with ergot. (Ergot is caused by a fungus which invades developing kernels of rye grain, especially under warm and damp conditions such as existed at the time of the previous rye harvest in Salem. Convulsive ergotism causes violent fits, a crawling sensation on the skin, vomiting, choking, and--most interestingly--hallucinations. The hallucinogenic drug LSD is a dervivative of ergot.) Many of the symptoms or convulsive ergotism seem to match those attributed to Betty Parris, but there is no way of knowing with any certainty if she in fact suffered from the disease--and the theory would not explain the afflictions suffered by others in Salem later in the year.
At the time, however, there was another theory to explain the girls' symptoms. Cotton Mather had recently published a popular book, "Memorable Providences," describing the suspected witchcraft of an Irish washerwoman in Boston, and Betty's behavior in some ways mirrored that of the afflicted person described in Mather's widely read and discussed book. It was easy to believe in 1692 in Salem, with an Indian war raging less than seventy miles away (and many refugees from the war in the area) that the devil was close at hand. Sudden and violent death occupied minds.
Talk of witchcraft increased when other playmates of Betty, including eleven-year-old Ann Putnam, seventeen-year-old Mercy Lewis, and Mary Walcott, began to exhibit similar unusual behavior. When his own nostrums failed to effect a cure, William Griggs, a doctor called to examine the girls, suggested that the girls' problems might have a supernatural origin. The widespread belief that witches targeted children made the doctor's diagnosis seem increasingly likely.
A neighbor, Mary Sibley, proposed a form of counter magic. She told Tituba to bake a rye cake with the urine of the afflicted victim and feed the cake to a dog. ( Dogs were believed to be used by witches as agents to carry out their devilish commands.) By this time, suspicion had already begun to focus on Tituba, who had been known to tell the girls tales of omens, voodoo, and witchcraft from her native folklore. Her participation in the urine cake episode made her an even more obvious scapegoat for the inexplicable.
Meanwhile, the number of girls afflicted continued to grow, rising to seven with the addition of Ann Putnam, Elizabeth Hubbard, Susannah Sheldon, and Mary Warren. According to historian Peter Hoffer, the girls "turned themselves from a circle of friends into a gang of juvenile delinquents." ( Many people of the period complained that young people lacked the piety and sense of purpose of the founders' generation.) The girls contorted into grotesque poses, fell down into frozen postures, and complained of biting and pinching sensations. In a village where everyone believed that the devil was real, close at hand, and acted in the real world, the suspected affliction of the girls became an obsession.
Sometime after February 25, when Tituba baked the witch cake, and February 29, when arrest warrants were issued against Tituba and two other women, Betty Parris and Abigail Williams named their afflictors and the witchhunt began. The consistency of the two girls' accusations suggests strongly that the girls worked out their stories together. Soon Ann Putnam and Mercy Lewis were also reporting seeing "witches flying through the winter mist." The prominent Putnam family supported the girls' accusations, putting considerable impetus behind the prosecutions.
The first three to be accused of witchcraft were Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborn. Tituba was an obvious choice (LINK TO TITUBA'S EXAMINATION). Good was a beggar and social misfit who lived wherever someone would house her (LINK TO GOOD'S EXAMINATION) (LINK TO GOOD'S TRIAL), and Osborn was old, quarrelsome, and had not attended church for over a year. The Putnams brought their complaint against the three women to county magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne, who scheduled examinations for the suspected witches for March 1, 1692 in Ingersoll's tavern. When hundreds showed up, the examinations were moved to the meeting house. At the examinations, the girls described attacks by the specters of the three women, and fell into their by then perfected pattern of contortions when in the presence of one of the suspects. Other villagers came forward to offer stories of cheese and butter mysteriously gone bad or animals born with deformities after visits by one of the suspects.The magistrates, in the common practice of the time, asked the same questions of each suspect over and over: Were they witches? Had they seen Satan? How, if they are were not witches, did they explain the contortions seemingly caused by their presence? The style and form of the questions indicates that the magistrates thought the women guilty.
The matter might have ended with admonishments were it not for Tituba. After first adamantly denying any guilt, afraid perhaps of being made a scapegoat, Tituba claimed that she was approached by a tall man from Boston--obviously Satan--who sometimes appeared as a dog or a hog and who asked her to sign in his book and to do his work. Yes, Tituba declared, she was a witch, and moreover she and four other witches, including Good and Osborn, had flown through the air on their poles. She had tried to run to Reverend Parris for counsel, she said, but the devil had blocked her path. Tituba's confession succeeded in transforming her from a possible scapegoat to a central figure in the expanding prosecutions. Her confession also served to silence most skeptics, and Parris and other local ministers began witch hunting with zeal.
Soon, according to their own reports, the spectral forms of other women began attacking the afflicted girls. Martha Corey, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Cloyce, and Mary Easty(LINK TO EASTY'S EXAMINATION) (LINK TO EASTY'S PETITION FOR MERCY) were accused of witchcraft. During a March 20 church service, Ann Putnam suddenly shouted, "Look where Goodwife Cloyce sits on the beam suckling her yellow bird between her fingers!" Soon Ann's mother, Ann Putnam, Sr., would join the accusers. Dorcas Good, four-year-old daughter of Sarah Good, became the first child to be accused of witchcraft when three of the girls complained that they were bitten by the specter of Dorcas. (The four-year-old was arrested, kept in jail for eight months, watched her mother get carried off to the gallows, and would "cry her heart out, and go insane.") The girls accusations and their ever more polished performances, including the new act of being struck dumb, played to large and believing audiences.
Stuck in jail with the damning testimony of the afflicted girls widely accepted, suspects began to see confession as a way to avoid the gallows. Deliverance Hobbs became the second witch to confess, admitting to pinching three of the girls at the Devil's command and flying on a pole to attend a witches' Sabbath in an open field. Jails approached capacity and the colony "teetered on the brink of chaos" when Governor Phips returned from England. Fast action, he decided, was required.
Phips created a new court, the "court of oyer and terminer," to hear the witchcraft cases. Five judges, including three close friends of Cotton Mather, were appointed to the court. Chief Justice, and most influential member of the court, was a gung-ho witch hunter named William Stoughton. Mather urged Stoughton and the other judges to credit confessions and admit "spectral evidence" (testimony by afflicted persons that they had been visited by a suspect's specter). Ministers were looked to for guidance by the judges, who were generally without legal training, on matters pertaining to witchcraft. Mather's advice was heeded. the judges also decided to allow the so-called "touching test" (defendants were asked to touch afflicted persons to see if their touch, as was generally assumed of the touch of witches, would stop their contortions) and examination of the bodies of accused for evidence of "witches' marks" (moles or the like upon which a witch's familiar might suck) (SCENE DEPICTING EXAMINATION FOR MARKS). Evidence that would be excluded from modern courtrooms-- hearsay, gossip, stories, unsupported assertions, surmises-- was also generally admitted. Many protections that modern defendants take for granted were lacking in Salem: accused witches had no legal counsel, could not have witnesses testify under oath on their behalf, and had no formal avenues of appeal. Defendants could, however, speak for themselves, produce evidence, and cross-examine their accusers. The degree to which defendants in Salem were able to take advantage of their modest protections varied considerably, depending on their own acuteness and their influence in the community.
The first accused witch to be brought to trial was Bridget Bishop. Almost sixty years old, owner of a tavern where patrons could drink cider ale and play shuffleboard (even on the Sabbath), critical of her neighbors, and reluctant to pay her her bills, Bishop was a likely candidate for an accusation of witchcraft (LINK TO EXAMINATION OF BISHOP). The fact that Thomas Newton, special prosecutor, selected Bishop for his first prosecution suggests that he believed the stronger case could be made against her than any of the other suspect witches. At Bishop's trial on June 2, 1692, a field hand testified that he saw Bishop's image stealing eggs and then saw her transform herself into a cat. Deliverance Hobbs, by then probably insane, and Mary Warren, both confessed witches, testified that Bishop was one of them. A villager named Samuel Grey told the court that Bishop visited his bed at night and tormented him. A jury of matrons assigned to examine Bishop's body reported that they found an "excrescence of flesh." Several of the afflicted girls testified that Bishop's specter afflicted them. Numerous other villagers described why they thought Bishop was responsible for various bits of bad luck that had befallen them. There was even testimony that while being transported under guard past the Salem meeting house, she looked at the building and caused a part of it to fall to the ground. Bishop's jury returned a verdict of guilty . One of the judges, Nathaniel Saltonstall, aghast at the conduct of the trial, resigned from the court. Chief Justice Stoughton signed Bishop's death warrant, and on June 10, 1692, Bishop was carted to Gallows Hill and hanged (LINK TO IMAGE OF BISHOP'S HANGING).
As the summer of 1692 warmed, the pace of trials picked up. Not all defendants were as disreputable as Bridget Bishop. Rebecca Nurse was a pious, respected woman whose specter, according to Ann Putnam, Jr. and Abagail Williams, attacked them in mid March of 1692 (LINK TO EXAMINATION OF NURSE). Ann Putnam, Sr. added her complaint that Nurse demanded that she sign the Devil's book, then pinched her. Nurse was one of three Towne sisters , all identified as witches, who were members of a Topsfield family that had a long-standing quarrel with the Putnam family. Apart from the evidence of Putnam family members, the major piece of evidence against Nurse appeared to be testimony indicating that soon after Nurse lectured Benjamin Houlton for allowing his pig to root in her garden, Houlton died. The Nurse jury returned a verdict of not guilty, much to the displeasure of Chief Justice Stoughton, who told the jury to go back and consider again a statement of Nurse's that might be considered an admission of guilt (but more likely an indication of confusion about the question, as Nurse was old and nearly deaf). The jury reconvened, this time coming back with a verdict of guilty(LINK TO NURSE TRIAL). On July 19, 1692, Nurse rode with four other convicted witches to Gallows Hill.
Persons who scoffed at accusations of witchcraft risked becoming targets of accusations themselves. One man who was openly critical of the trials paid for his skepticism with his life. John Proctor, a central figure in Arthur Miller's fictionalized account of the Salem witchhunt, The Crucible, was an opinionated tavern owner who openly denounced the witchhunt. Testifying against Proctor were Ann Putnam, Abagail Williams, Indian John (a slave of Samuel Parris who worked in a competing tavern), and eighteen-year-old Elizabeth Booth, who testified that ghosts had come to her and accused Proctor of serial murder. Proctor fought back, accusing confessed witches of lying, complaining of torture, and demanding that his trial be moved to Boston. The efforts proved futile. Proctor was hanged. His wife Elizabeth, who was also convicted of witchcraft, was spared execution because of her pregnancy (reprieved "for the belly").
No execution caused more unease in Salem than that of the village's ex-minister, George Burroughs. Burroughs, who was living in Maine in 1692, was identified by several of his accusers as the ringleader of the witches. Ann Putnam claimed that Burroughs bewitched soldiers during a failed military campaign against Wabanakis in 1688-89, the first of a string of military disasters that could be blamed on an Indian-Devil alliance. In her interesting book, In the Devil's Snare, historian Mary Beth Norton argues that the large number of accusations against Burroughs, and his linkage to the frontier war, is the key to understanding the Salem trials. Norton contends that the enthusiasm of the Salem court in prosecuting the witchcraft cases owed in no small measure to the judges' desire to shift the "blame for their own inadequate defense of the frontier." Many of the judges, Norton points out, played lead roles in a war effort that had been markedly unsuccessful.
Among the thirty accusers of Burroughs was nineteen-year-old Mercy Lewis, a refugee of the frontier wars. Lewis, the most imaginative and forceful of the young accusers, offered unusually vivid testimony against Burroughs. Lewis told the court that Burroughs flew her to the top of a mountain and, pointing toward the surrounding land, promised her all the kingdoms if only she would sign in his book (a story very similar to that found in Matthew 4:8). Lewis said, "I would not writ if he had throwed me down on one hundred pitchforks." At an execution, a defendant in the Puritan colonies was expected to confess, and thus to save his soul. When Burroughs on Gallows Hill continued to insist on his innocence and then recited the Lord's Prayer perfectly (something witches were thought incapable of doing), the crowd reportedly was "greatly moved." The agitation of the crowd caused Cotton Mather to intervene and remind the crowd that Burroughs had had his day in court and lost.
One victim of the Salem witchhunt was not hanged, but rather pressed under heavy stones until his death. Such was the fate of octogenarian Giles Corey who, after spending five months in chains in a Salem jail with his also accused wife, had nothing but contempt for the proceedings. Seeing the futility of a trial and hoping that by avoiding a conviction his farm, that would otherwise go the state, might go to his two sons-in-law, Corey refused to stand for trial. The penalty for such a refusal was peine et fort, or pressing. Three days after Corey's death, on September 22, 1692, eight more convicted witches, including Giles' wife Martha, were hanged. They were the last victims of the witchhunt.
By early autumn of 1692, Salem's lust for blood was ebbing. Doubts were developing as to how so many respectable people could be guilty. Reverend John Hale said, " It cannot be imagined that in a place of so much knowledge, so many in so small compass of land should abominably leap into the Devil's lap at once." The educated elite of the colony began efforts to end the witch-hunting hysteria that had enveloped Salem. Increase Mather, the father of Cotton, published what has been called "America's first tract on evidence," a work entitled Cases of Conscience, which argued that it "were better that ten suspected witches should escape than one innocent person should be condemned." Increase Mather urged the court to exclude spectral evidence. Samuel Willard, a highly regarded Boston minister, circulated Some Miscellany Observations, which suggested that the Devil might create the specter of an innocent person. Mather's and Willard's works were given to Governor Phips. The writings most likely influenced the decision of Phips to order the court to exclude spectral evidence and touching tests and to require proof of guilt by clear and convincing evidence. With spectral evidence not admitted, twenty-eight of the last thirty-three witchcraft trials ended in acquittals. The three convicted witches were later pardoned. In May of 1693, Phips released from prison all remaining accused or convicted witches.
By the time the witchhunt ended, nineteen convicted witches were executed (LINK TO LIST OF DEAD), at least four accused witches had died in prison, and one man, Giles Corey, had been pressed to death. About one to two hundred other persons were arrested and imprisoned on witchcraft charges. Two dogs were executed as suspected accomplices of witches.
Scholars have noted potentially telling differences between the accused and the accusers in Salem. Most of the accused lived to the south of, and were generally better off financially, than most of the accusers. In a number of cases, accusing families stood to gain property from the convictions of accused witches. Also, the accused and the accusers generally took opposite sides in a congregational schism that had split the Salem community before the outbreak of hysteria. While many of the accused witches supported former minister George Burroughs, the families that included the accusers had--for the most part--played leading roles in forcing Burroughs to leave Salem. The conclusion that many scholars draw from these patterns is that property disputes and congregational feuds played a major role in determining who lived, and who died, in 1692.
A period of atonement began in the colony following the release of the surviving accused witches. Samuel Sewall, one of the judges, issued a public confession of guilt and an apology. Several jurors came forward to say that they were "sadly deluded and mistaken" in their judgments. Reverend Samuel Parris conceded errors of judgment, but mostly shifted blame to others. Parris was replaced as minister of Salem village by Thomas Green, who devoted his career to putting his torn congregation back together. Governor Phips blamed the entire affair on William Stoughton. Stoughton, clearly more to blame than anyone for the tragic episode, refused to apologize or explain himself. He criticized Phips for interfering just when he was about to "clear the land" of witches. Stoughton became the next governor of Massachusetts.
The witches disappeared, but witchhunting in America did not. Each generation must learn the lessons of history or risk repeating its mistakes. Salem should warn us to think hard about how to best safeguard and improve our system of justice.
You’ve probably seen the ads promoting a new television series called “Salem.” The show will make history as WGN America’s first original series when it premieres Sunday, April 20th.
The Tribune Company owns the cable network along with local television stations like WHO.
The network invited reporters from around the country to get a glimpse of what to expect from this supernatural show.
Society was wrapped up in the notorious witch trials of Salem in 1692. Actor Seth Gabel, who plays Cotton Mather, says, “On the surface, the show appears to be one thing, and kind of this period show about this shameful time in American history.”
But, the Salem in the show isn’t the same as the town in the 17th century. Actor Xander Berkeley, who plays politician Magistrate Hale, says, “What they’re taking is the actual reality and tweaking it.”
In this Salem, the witches are real and they aren’t the people you’d expect. Co-Creator Brannon Braga says, “It’s ultimately about a character named Mary Sibley who made a deal with the devil to have a better place in society.”
He goes on to say, “It’s got some socioeconomic political elements that are percolating under the surface. And, it’s about empowerment in an oppressive society. And, what would you do to get, gain power.”
“Salem” is set in the volatile world of 17th century Massachusetts. But, the show is shot in Shreveport, Louisiana. Some scenes take place on a soundstage. The rest are on a farm about 45 minutes outside of town. Actor Shane West says, “It was easily the best script I had read in a long time.”
West stars as the original American hero John Alden. You may remember him from the NBC hit “ER” or in the CW’s “Nikita.”
West says, “It’s exciting to be a part of anything new really, and how they feel about this. That’s a great feeling as well.”
Janet Montgomery is the leading lady, playing the beautiful and ruthless Mary Sibley. Berkeley is from shows like “24,” “Nikita” and “The Mentalist.” He says, “It has everything you could want in terms of history, in terms of witchcraft and magic and conflict and sex.”
Ashley Madekwe plays Salem’s most powerful witch Tituba, Tamzin Merchant plays fearless and talented artist Anne Hale, Elise Eberle plays afflicted Mercy Lewis and Iddo Goldberg is branded outcast Isaac. Gabel leads the witch hunt as Mather. Gable says, “Cotton Mather was very prolific with his writings, so I was able to read a lot of essays and letters that he wrote.”
All the characters are real people in history with a twist. Braga says, “We change things. It’s probably half accurate, half invention.”
As far as pushing the envelope with what’s on television, West says, “We’re pushing it as far as we can. We’re going to some extremes.”
Madekwe says, “When there is something that’s pushing the envelope, it’s really warranted. There’s no nudity for nudity’s sake. We’re not trying to be gratuitous. We’re trying to tell the truth of the situation.”
Berkeley says, “It’s going to be Puritan meets Matrix. It’s going to be futuristic, so we break with our preconceived ideas.”
“Salem” premieres Sunday, April 20th at 9 p.m. on WGN America. Look for more about the detailed sets and costumes as the premiere nears.
Posted on: 12:57 pm, April 4, 2014, by Megan Reuther
Blyssful Saturn's Day Legionnaires & Pagans Everywhere!
The WGN channel out of Chicago will be featuring a mini series on the Salem Witching Burnings from a much more indepth perspective and not from a christian point of view but from a historians point of view. Looks to be more to the actual events. Airs Sunday 20 how surprising.
We have just a few more days to get signed up for the Herbology 101 class:
~~~BEGINNERS HERBOLOGY 101~~~
COURSE COSTS AND REGISTRATION DATES
For centuries Witches have grown there own herbs for magickal,
culinary and medicinal uses. A garden or container with herbs,
can focus on elementals, planetary influences, a particular deity
or particular spell work, such as protection, prosperity or love
magick. The possibilities are endless.
You will learn how to grow,harvest,dry and use 50 basic herbs in
a Witches daily life.
Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs by Scott Cunningham
Your Backyard Herb Garden by Miranda Smith
Registration enrollment for this class will begin on:
MARCH 1, 2014 THROUGH APRIL 6TH, 2014
ORIENTATION BEGINS MONDAY APRIL 7TH
Please pay for class in the Neighborly Needs & ministry Funds tab.
Please email your receipt to:
Class expected 12
Class cost for herbology 101 $70.00 Books are available at amazon.com or your favorite store.
All donations and payment options for course and books are to be made to our pay-pal link in the green tool bar under:
Neighborhood Needs & Ministry Funds.
Send class registration payment confirmation and personal info to:
Copyright © 11122012
Legion of Pagans Spiritual Ministry
Educational Institution of Magick
Elder Airwolf Founder/Owner
Hash Brown Quiche
Hash browns can always be counted on to add heartiness to egg breafast recipes. Here, they double as a crisp crust for this irrestible breakfast quiche.
Makes: 8 servings
Prep: 30 mins
Cook: 25 mins
Bake: 50 mins 325°F
Hash Brown Quiche
1 3/4 pounds russet potatoes
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon ground black pepper
1 tablespoons olive oil
1 tablespoon butter
4 slices bacon
1 1/4 cups coarsely shredded zucchini (1 medium)
1/2 cup chopped red onion (1 medium)
4 eggs, lightly beaten
1 cup half-and-half or light cream
1/4 teaspoon crushed red pepper
1 cup shredded Swiss cheese (4 ounces)
1 tablespoon all-purpose flour
Preheat oven to 325 degrees F. Peel and coarsely shred potatoes. Place potatoes in a large bowl; add enough water to cover potatoes. Stir well. Drain in a colander set over the sink. Repeat rinsing and draining two or three times until water runs clear. Drain again, pressing out as much water as you can with a rubber spatula. Line a salad spinner with paper towels; add potatoes and spin.* Repeat, if necessary, until potatoes are dry. Transfer potatoes to a large bowl. Sprinkle potatoes with 1/4 teaspoon of the salt and the black pepper, tossing to combine.
In a 12-inch nonstick skillet** heat 1 tablespoon of the oil and the butter over medium-high heat until butter foams. Add potatoes to the skillet, spreading into an even layer. Gently press with the back of a spatula to form a cake. Reduce heat to medium. Cook, without stirring, about 12 minutes or until the bottom is golden brown and crisp.
Place a baking sheet or cutting board over the top of the skillet. Carefully invert the skillet to transfer the potatoes to the baking sheet. If needed, add the remaining 1 tablespoon oil to the skillet. Using the baking sheet, slide the potatoes back into the skillet, uncooked side down. Cook about 8 minutes more or until the bottom is golden brown.
Lightly grease a 9-inch pie pan or plate. Use the baking sheet to transfer hash browns to pie pan, pressing hash browns into the bottom and up the sides of the pie pan.
In a large skillet cook bacon until crisp. Drain, reserving 1 tablespoon of the drippings. Crumble bacon; set aside. Cook zucchini and onion in the reserved drippings over medium heat for 3 to 5 minutes or until tender but not brown.
In a large bowl combine eggs, half-and-half, the remaining 1/4 teaspoon salt, and the crushed red pepper. Stir in bacon and zucchini mixture. In a small bowl combine shredded cheese and flour. Add to egg mixture; mix well.
Pour egg mixture into the hash-brown lined pie pan. Bake for 50 to 55 minutes or until a knife inserted near the center comes out clean. Let stand for 10 minutes before serving.
From the Test Kitchen
If desired, instead of using a salad spinner, potatoes can be dried by pressing the water out with a potato ricer or by patting the shredded potatoes dry with paper towels.
A skillet with sloping sides works particularly well.
Nutrition Facts (Hash Brown Quiche)
Per serving: 324 kcal cal., 22 g fat (9 g sat. fat, 2 g polyunsaturated fat, 8 g monounsatured fat), 133 mg chol., 412 mg sodium, 20 g carb., 3 g fiber, 2 g sugar, 12 g pro.
Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet
3 NIGHTS OF HELL, CANDLE SPELL
This spell will inflict serious pain and sores on your enemy for a period of 3 strange days. After which the spell is lifted he/she is made well again. Take a black candle and place a picture of your enemy in front of you and tilt the candle so the wax drips upon the would be victim in the picture. Visualise the wax buring sores in to the body of thine enemy. While doing so, recite the following 3 times:
As I do this candle spell Bring thine enemy 3 nights of hell Candle black, black as night Bring him/her pains of flesh tonight! Lesions on his skin will grow afflict him/her with painful blow Sores and pain afflicted him now For 3 nights he'll wonder how Dukes of Darkness, Kings of hell Smite thine enemy, bring him hell When 3 nights of pain have past Make him/her well, well at last!
After siting and thinking about the sores that will inflict your enemy and the pain he/she will suffer you may then extinguish the candle. When 3 nights have past tear up the photo and say the following:
When 3 nights of pain endured, I lift this curse rest assured Darkness leave him/her, go away, the curse is lifted now, today!
Cast with care for you will reap what you sow!
Instead of the Hebrew Archangels I described, you could use Wiccan Deities to invoke the 'pure' form of the Elements.
AIR-EAST: The Air image in Wicca seems to be masculine and relates to Herne, the Black Man, the messenger of the Gods, or the Sky Gods: Odin, or Lug as the rising Sun God. The God can be imagined as riding through the night sky, at the head of the Wild Hunt, or rising above the branches of the world-ash. Instead of the Sword given to Raphael, the God might carry a staff, or spear, or wand, which is attributed to Air in most Wiccan traditions.
FIRE-SOUTH: The Fire image is definitely masculine and relates to the Horned God: Cernunnos, Lucifer, call Him what you will. He stands in the hot light of the noonday sun, radiating fiery energy. He would bear an Athame or sword, which is the weapon of Fire in most Wiccan styles.
WATER-WEST: The Water image is the Maiden, the mistress of the Moon and the Tides: Aradia, Artemis, Venus rising from the waves. Her image is lit by the silver light of the moon, upon a tranquil reach of water or the foaming sea. She might hold the chalice, symbol of water (alternatively, the cauldron might be envisioned).
EARTH-NORTH: The Goddess in Her aspect as Earth Mother is here: Hertha, Habondia, Demeter. She stands beneath the golden, life-giving sun surrounded by the fruits of the Earth. Before her, a platter flows with good things of the Earth, for the disk/shield/platter is the pentacle, magick instrument of Earth. These are only bare sketches of the magickal images that a witch might use to replace the Qabalistic images of the traditional pentagram ritual. I offer them for what they are worth.
A few points to note:
the phases of the sun used in the Archangelic images (East:Dawn; South:Noon; West:Sunset; North:Midnight) are not the same, nor are they as important to Wicca. Instead, the poles of day and night are established: Night for the East-West axis and Day for the North-South axis.
the male-female poles are established with the masculine images (Herne and Cernunnos) attributed to the active Elements (Air and Fire) and the feminine images (Aradia and Habondia) to the passive Elements (Water and Earth). Note that one figure of each gender stands in light, and one in darkness. This male- female/positive-negative/active-passive polarity is central to virtually all systems of magick, e.g. the yin/yang symbol in oriental systems. I may be betraying solar-phallic tendencies by these assignments, and you may want to use different attributions: The Maiden can be Air and the Mother switch to Water, with the Hunter moving into Earth, for example. Heck, the dual God Forms should perhaps be invoked in each quarter. e.g. Venus/Adonis imagery in East or South, Hertha/Herne in West, etc.
Folk in magic and especially beginners tend to obsess about following the tradition of doing certain types of work at certain beneficial times of the various natural cycles within which we exist. Unlike the more complex astrological, moon, year or day/month cycles, sun phases are actually far more basic, more powerful, and sun phases are easy to remember and very clearly natural.
Therefore, for beginners in magic and energy magic to start synchronizing their spells to the sun, rather than only ever to the moon, is good practice. You get to work your energy magic in the light, with the help of the light, making it very bright magic indeed :-)
It might be useful to consider this and other cycles not just in the context of traditional "spellwork" but in a far wider context which includes tasks of organizing, healing, planning and solution.
The truth about energy magic is that it belongs into the hard life, and when it enters there, life becomes exciting and enlivening, full of opportunity.
The sun *is* the life giver, the source of power for every thing and every one on this planet of ours; the most profound physical influence as well as the most powerful energetic influence so it makes a lot of sense to give it a bit of attention and synchronize to the sun in what we do.
The Sun emits an uncomplicated, direct masculine energy that is warm and golden-feeling. Unlike the Moon, He moves through several different phases every day, availing the magickal practitioner of unlimited opportunities for immediate spellwork. His wide range of properties can boost almost any magical effort normally aided by the Moon.
Sunrise lends its energies to beginnings, change, and cleansing. This phase is beneficial to magical workings that involve new endeavors in employment, love, or direction in life. Rejuvenation matters such as renewing hope and trust, good health, or even mending a broken heart also benefit from this energy.
During the morning hours, the energy of the Sun expands and becomes strong and active. Any project that requires building, growth, or expansion works well during this phase. This is an excellent time to build upon the positive aspects in your life, to resolve situations where courage is necessary, and to add warmth and harmony to your home.
Morning-Sun energy is also of benefit when performing plant magic or working spells for financial increase.
The influence of the Sun reaches its peak at high noon. This vibration is excellent for performing efforts that involve the mental abilities, health, and physical energy. It is also of value when charging crystals, stones, or metal ritual tools such as athames, censors, and cauldrons.
As the Sun journeys downward, His energies take on a receptive quality. Use this phase to work efforts involving professionalism, business matters, communications, and clarity. It is also of benefit for spell work involving exploration and travel.
The predominant energies of sunset provide a suitable condition for spellwork requiring reduction or alleviation. This phase lends itself to the removal of stress and confusion, hardship, and depression, and the disclosure of deception. It is also a good time for dieting magic.
Use rituals adopted or composed of your own choosing in performing magic during these phases.
Colour, like everything else in your dreams are there
To Heal You
To Guide You
As an expression of your reaction to the subject matter of your dream
Healing and Guidance is blocked by:
Limiting the colour to a thin stripe
Polluting the colour by darkening it
Adding negative colours such as black or grey
[Dream Colour White]
Meaning: Hope, faith, purity, perfection,confidence, enlightenment.
When mixed or associated with other colours it purifies and refines the meaning of that colour.
White alone can indicate a proud, rigid, judgmental immaturity - a should be, controlling attitude.
Soft or pearl white can indicate the gift of prophecy.
[Dream Colour Black]
Meaning: Negativity, i.e. fear, anxiety,hatred, resentment, guilt, depression (no hope / faith). When mixed or associated with other colours it adulterates their meaning e.g. darker shades of red, blue yellow, etc.
Black and White indicates Intolerance, simplistic extremism - If something is not good it must be evil
[Dream Colour Red]
Meaning: Joy, sexuality, aggression, animal passion, fun.
The shade of red is important
Red and black: anger
Red and white: need for joy and hope - especially if worn or brought by a healing agent
[Dream Colour Orange]
Drive and Ambition
Meaning: Drive, ambition, (mix of yellow and red). Energizing
colour, especially in career dreams. Orange and Black: Career. Also used to heal the digestive/elimination system.
[Dream Colour Yellow]
Meaning: Mental activity, intellect. Ability to rationalise.
If brought by healing agent it means the dreamer has difficulty rationalising. Muddy or mustard yellow has the same meaning.
If a guide wears or brings pure bright yellow, i.e. Yellow (intellect) plus White (Enlightenment) then dreamer has an intuitive or enlightened intellect.
Yellow may represent dreamers usual reaction to the subject matter.
[Dream Colour Green]
Sharing and Balance
Meaning: Adaptability, reconciliation, Need for healing, harmony, balance, reconciliation (within self or self with others). Dark green, battle dress green or green and black represent difficulties with sharing (jealousy, rivalry). Need to balance male and female aspects. Look for trouble with the heart.
Balance and healing for the heart, circulatory systems and emotions by becoming more giving, generous and emotionally open.
If the green is worn or brought by guide (esp. if pink or peach also appears) then the dreamer has counselling skills. Also indicated by Books, Newspapers, Library.
[Dream Colour Pink]
Meaning: Love (mix of red and white), need or unconditional love, usually mother love or love for mother, This usually means that the dreamer did not bond with mother or mother did not give unconditional love at birth.
[Dream Colour Blue]
Meaning: Spirituality, religion, art, culture, philosophy, attitude to life itself.
Dark blue (blue + black): Negative philosophy of life. e.g. superstition or fearful form of religion. When fear (black) is mixed with blue (fear pollutes attitude to life).
Light Blue (blue + white): Hope / faith. Healing agents will often appear wearing this colour.
If a guide appears wearing blue and silver or gold then you are expected to regard intuition (silver) or healing (gold) as spiritual.
[Dream Colour Purple]
Spiritual Leader and Teacher
Meaning: Nobility of purpose, spiritual leadership, spiritual teaching, regal, power, authority in spiritual matters e.g. bishops wear purple.
The shade of purple is important
Indigo: clairvoyance (Brow Chakra)
[Dream Colour Peach]
If guide wears or brings peach or pink and green it means that the dreamer has the potential to be a counsellor (having empathy and harmony).
[Dream Colour Cream]
Meaning: Acceptance, tolerance, a growing maturity or a need for tolerance.
[Dream Colour Grey]
Meaning: Uncommitted, uncertain - grey area. Mental denial of emotion, depression.
[Dream Colour Brown]
Meaning: Earthy, practical, of the earth.
Dark or dull brown: unenlightened or depressing earthiness of denial of spirit, negative materiality.
[Dream Colour Silver]
Indicates that the dreamer has the Spiritual Gift of Intuition.
[Dream Colour Gold]
Indicates that the dreamer has a Spiritual Healing gift.
IF YOU ARE NOT IN THIS CLASS PLEASE DO NOT POST HERE!
WEEK VI-STUDENT ADDITION
What is the “Golden Bough?”
What is the “Law of Similarity” and the “Law of Contagion?”
Give me 1 example for each of the following “magical methods?”
A: (Note-we have reviewed examples in previous chapters.)
Student examples for the following categories.
1-words of power?
What was the cord spell used for traditionally? Be specific please.
What is the purpose to the following types magic for spells ? ( be specific please.)
5- Knot Negativity=
6-Symbol and Image=
13- Potted Plants=
14-Gems & Stone Spells=
17-Amulets & Talismans=
A Greenwitch is constantly aware of her surroundings and takes nothing for granted, so what are the 5 basic thing she/he is aware of at all times?
When working with elements and most aspects it usually falls in groups of two or four and all these need to be respected, so name all the “tides correspondence” for each element?
A: Be exact!
In the psychology of magic, please explain the process of the “De'ja' Vu” experience in detail?
What is “keening” and how can you obtain it?
Give me three “personal examples” of a De'ja'vu moment?
Student personal experiences.
Give me the six “herbal/plant listings by dark power purpose with three herbs for each?
What is the definition of Ogham and why do we use it for?
What are the realms of the Ogham?
How many Kings are there in the Ogham, and what directions do they represent?
How many Queens are there in the Ogham and what directions do they represent.
What is a few and fifths in a ogham?
How many paths to to each realm?
What is the world, direction, and its aspect for the following?
When throwing a ogham spread, describe the four interpretation process?
In throwing a spread, which fews do we not use?
In the “overall reading uses and interpretations” how many aspects and what are they?
What is “Passing the Midhes?”
A: (note-be precise)
In this weeks test you will be asked to make a witches ladder and submit a picture.
You will also be asked to create and submit a petition spell.
You will also be asked to submit a description of a kitchen craft spell.
You will also be asked to submit documented “Meditation of Knowing” spell with conversion chart.
In the following weeks test 7on Thursday the 23rd next full moon you will be asked to create your own Ogham, submit a picture (paper, sticks, and stones will do but it is up to you how elaborate or creative you want to be) state your intent and perform the “Passing the Midhes” spell. You will also attache your conversion table with this spell. Since the “ Passing the Midhes” involves many worlds it can be used anytime, but makes sure your intent matches all aspects. Please follow and document all preparations for this spell.
Happy & Safe Spellcasting!
Legion of Pagans Spiritual Ministry
Institution of Magick
One must Master several things before ever attempting to do Spells! One should learn how the Universe works and know thyself physically and spiritually. One should study any and all "Occult books" you can get your hands on and study all aspects of the Occult. This means that you should also study different Paths and keep and open mind. For truly all religions are tied together. Do not worry over who is right and who is wrong. The real truth is you should stay away from any religion, so that you are not locked into a belief system. The more knowledge you take in, the smarter and more powerful you will become, for the brain will grow new cells as we become more intelligent. Remember this... never stop learning, no matter how much you know.
1. I suggest that you study and Master my "Dream Recall". It is quite easy to learn and you will be amazed at the results. This is a must and will teach you much about yourself. It will also lead into "Astral Projection", later down the line. This should be practiced for several months, keeping a diary.
2. At this time you should also be learning to Meditate, mastering the clearing of the mind of all unwanted thoughts. If you cannot meditate then you will never be able to do Magic with any real success. Concentration is very important when doing Spells and Magic, for if you cannot concentrate on the Magic you are working, how do you expect it to work? If you do not already know how to meditate. I will be making a page on it soon. But for not, just sit and try to clear your mind of all thoughts and have total peace of mind. it is not as easy as you think. Here is a simple way to clear your mind, here is how to clear your mind, this is actually a meditation technique that I use and teach.Do your stretching and so forth, then lay down, close your eyes and picture a big trash dumpster on your mental screen. Now take all you worries, one by one such as your bills, your girlfriend/boyfriend, your enemies, your friends, your car, and everything that you think about or worry about and put them in the dumpster one by one. When you are done, close the lid and lock it! then push it off your mental screen so that you do not see it any more.
3. You now need to know "How and why Spells work" and why sometimes they don't. There are many things that come into play when doing Spells and Magic. Most of you young people think that you can just pick up a Magical book and read some words and the Spell will work. Sorry, but this is not going to happen. This comes from your watching to much TV and movies.
4. You might now want to decide what type of magic to study. There is "High Magic" and "Witchcraft" (low magic). Both contain many sub forms of Magic and the list goes on. Choose that which you think is best for you. There is no right or wrong one to choose.
5. You will definitely need to learn some form of Protection. What I mean is that you need to be protected when doing Magic. Protected from what? Well you can certainty attract bad spirits around you if you do not have protection and if you do not know what you are doing. You can learn may different rituals and you can even wear an amulet such as the right side up "Pentagram". If you want to learn High Magic, then I suggest you learn the LBRP ritual which is on my "Pentagrams" page. It will give you the utmost protection. At this time I should warn you of one thing. Do not be a "Dabbler". What is a Dabbler? You will find many of then out there and it is easy for you to fall into this trap. A Dabbler is a person who reads maybe one book on Magic and does a spell then goes around professing to be Practitioner of the Occult Arts. I have seen so many out there on the Web. Yes you little Assholes who make a Web site and claim to be a Witch or Sorcerer and post Spells that you have stolen from other sites. you do this all for attention, so that people will think you are important!
Magic is a way of life, not a game. Those of you whom Dabble will only get hurt. You will attract things around you that you cannot control. Therefore, a Dabbler is someone who does not study and does spells every once and a while, with no knowledge of how spells really work. This is why one must study, study, study before doing spells.
6. Now if you have mastered the Dream Recall, then it is time to learn the "Astral Projection". There are both closely related and tie into each other, for both can be controlled.Now remember this, Astral Projection or OBE's (out of body experience) can take anywhere from weeks to years to master and you must take your time and do not give up. My method for doing this is one on many, many out there and you will find that what works for one person does not work for you. So find other books on the subject and try different methods until you find what works for you. 7. Once you have mastered most of this information, then it will be time to try your first "Spell". I suggest that you start with something very simple, such as a "Money spell" or a "Good Luck spell" or perhaps a "Protection spell" .
*Stay away from the Black Magic until you have a couple years of practice and knowledge. You will only hurt yourself if it backfires on you!*
There are many "Spells" to choose from on my site. Some of them are really good and some that are not so good. So you will have to try them out out see what works best for you. Remember that just because a spell does not work, does mean that it is not good. One must have practice and built up their magical power along with learning, as I mention earlier about "why, how come, and when" spells work.
However, many of the spells contain parts where "Candles" are needed and one must learn how to use "Candles" and dress them properly along with knowing which colors to use. This is a must in all magical endeavors!
Wow I just gave my Molly a bath for the first time since Samhain last year. She is collie/wolf with a thick undercoat and this was the first time I felt she could dry the undercoat without getting sick. Needless to say the water was brown and Molly is once again white walking with a spring in her step thinking she's all that.....lol swagger
Traditionally, dragons are guardians of treasure within the earth. Call upon a dragon for protection with this spell.
Close your eyes and see a huge, red, fire-breathing dragon in your mind’s eye. When you have this image fixed in your mind with rich detail, say:
“Ancient dragon, I summon thee from thy lair in the bowels of the earth.
Guard my possessions and send terror and confusion to my enemies!
Let thy wrath be dark and terrible against thieves and those with malicious intentions.
Allow no harm to come to my possessions, let all evil take flight!
No evil-doer shall come near, nor touch that which belongs to me.”
The gentle music and sweet fragrance of this tambourine is said to be irresistable to even the shyest faeries. Use it with a kind heart to lure them from their hiding places.
2 feet (61 cm) of grapevine; honeysuckle, or other woody vine
liter-sized soda bottle
4 yards (3.7 m) of 1/4 inch-wide (3mm) ribbon in one or more colors
4 jingle bells
various fresh herbs and flowers
1. You can buy small grapevine wreaths at craft stores. but most faeries can tell homemade from store-bought, and they tend to be more receptive to things you make yourself. Simply wind grapevine,honeysuckle, or a similar woody vine around the sode bottle. Avoid any vines that look hairy: it could be poison ivy! Wind the vine around the bottle several times, occasionally threading it through the innerpart of the wreath and back out again. Secure the circles of vine toeach other by tying small lengths of floral wire in four or five places around the wreath.
2. Measure and cut four 24-inch (61 cm) lengths of ribbon.
3. Double a length of cut ribbon. Thread the folded end through thetop loop of a jingle bell and pull through enough ribbon to looparound the wreath. Add the rest of the bells in this same way.
4. Thread the ends of the ribbon through the loop and tighten, pullingthe bell close to the wreath. Tie a simple knot in the ribbon tosecure the bell.
5. Measure and cut a 36-inch (92 cm) length of ribbon. Tie one endwith a small knot to the wreath. Wind the ribbon all around the wreathform.
6. Decorate the wreath with fresh or dried herbs, leaves,berry sprigs, or dried or fresh flowers.